67 blockchain articles

Chloee Weiner. Christie's hide caption. That price set a new record for the increasingly popular market for digital-only art — and makes Beeple's piece the third most-expensive work sold by a living artist at auction, according to a statement by Christie's. NFTs signal ownership and authenticity of digital works of art by recording the sale through blockchain technology. The South Carolina graphic designer made "Everydays" by posting a new work of art online every day for days, a project he began in

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Arkansas Law Review Archive

Center for American Progress. Yet there is great reason to be concerned about digital assets. Furthermore, the energy used to create, buy, and sell digital assets is a significant contributor to climate change, with the bitcoin network alone using more electricity per year than many countries. Sign Up. Investors and the public expect regulators to ensure financial markets are safe from fraud and manipulation; and although new legislation may prove necessary in the future, regulators must begin using their existing statutory authorities to address many of the harms that digital assets cause.

Regulators can and should use their authorities to limit greenhouse gas emissions from digital assets, protect consumers, and ensure full compliance with the law. This report provides background information on digital assets, the roles they may serve in financial markets and in commerce, and the harms that come from a lack of regulation. It also discusses the role that the U. Securities and Exchange Commission SEC can play in regulating digital assets that are securities to address those harms.

The report concludes with a brief discussion of how Congress and financial regulators beyond the SEC should respond to digital assets, stressing the need for Congress to appropriate significant funding toward regulation of the market. Digital assets exist as entries on ledgers known as blockchains, which themselves consist of records. Every transaction is viewable online by the public but is pseudonymous. Because wallets are a string of numbers and letters, every transaction a wallet makes can be traced, but it may be difficult to link a wallet to an individual.

Individuals generally obtain digital assets in one of two ways, depending on the specifics of the asset. First, they can purchase assets from an original distributor or on the secondary market. If one person wishes to sell an asset that another wishes to buy, it can be sold for cash or a different type of asset. These mined assets can then be bought and sold on the secondary market. Some types of digital assets are limited as to the amount that can be created through mining—in theory, for example, there will never be more than 21 million bitcoins 4 —whereas some digital assets allow for an unlimited number to be mined or otherwise created.

Further complicating the issue is that despite operating on a common underlying technology the blockchain , not all digital assets have the same fundamental properties and can be used for the same purpose. Other proponents contend that many digital assets are currencies not unlike U. While some digital assets promise a stable value, the prices of many virtual assets fluctuate so wildly that asset holders are often unwilling to part with or receive them as payment for other goods and services; vendors are rarely willing to accept the risk that payments received could depreciate 10 percent, for example, over the course of a day, and keeping track of rapidly changing values and adjusting prices accordingly is not something many are likely to do voluntarily.

Importantly, products with these functions—and the infrastructure developed around them—have traditionally been regulated in the U. Yet, in part because digital assets have largely been unregulated, their prices are frequently manipulated, market participants are too often defrauded or simply exploited, assets are stolen outright, and taxes owed are often not reported, let alone paid; digital assets are also used to fund illicit activities, including ransomware attacks and drug trafficking.

These markets are new and are still evolving. Although legislation may be necessary in the future, regulators must begin using their existing statutory authorities to address many of the problems found in the markets in order to protect future investors and others from being harmed. Imposing sensible regulation on digital assets is essential if their purported benefits are going to come to fruition. Properly functioning capital markets ensure that investments are driven in a fair, orderly, and efficient manner to their most productive uses; that investors are protected; and that the public interest is served.

Today, the digital asset markets looks very similar to the capital markets of the s, with rampant speculation, 17 market manipulation, 18 deception, 19 and out-and-out theft. Many, though not all, digital assets appear to facially meet the Howey and Reves tests. These products are subject to the securities laws and must work within our securities regime. The SEC can use its existing authorities to green the blockchain, protect investors, and prevent money laundering, tax evasion, and criminal activity.

This blockchain technology has created opportunities for new markets and new methods of conducting business that were unimaginable 15 years ago. However, some blockchain mining uses significant amounts of electricity: Estimates put bitcoin, the first such digital asset, alone at using as much as terawatt-hours to operate per year, 44 or roughly 0.

Because interest in cryptocurrencies does not appear to be waning, efforts are underway to make the digital asset markets more—or at least appear more—environmentally friendly. The Bitcoin Mining Council, a coalition of bitcoin miners, has released the Crypto Climate Accord to work towards net-zero emissions from digital assets by , 51 and some bitcoin miners are moving their operations to locales that are powered by solar power or hydroelectricity.

Essentially, the same amount of dirty energy is used, just by different industries. Perhaps the most effective efforts to green the digital asset markets are those that make the underlying technologies more energy efficient, such that the same output can be achieved with less power.

Although the imperative is for the private sector to migrate digital assets to more environmentally friendly technologies, the government also has a role to play in ensuring that the migration is efficient. Regulating some digital assets as securities will give the SEC several policy options that would help do just that. This would allow investors to move their capital to the most energy-efficient uses. For example, the SEC could require digital asset issuers to disclose which blockchain underlies their assets and the amount of computational power necessary to transact on that blockchain.

Beyond simply providing information to investors so they can make decisions about where to invest their capital, the movement of capital from energy-inefficient digital assets to more efficient ones would incentivize issuers to migrate their ledgers away from energy-intensive technologies, reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Additionally, the exchanges that transact in digital asset securities could impose listing standards, such that only those assets that meet minimum environmental standards could be listed and traded on their platforms. Because listed securities are easier for the public to trade, limiting digital asset securities to the greenest blockchain technologies would incentivize issuers to migrate to those technologies.

Furthermore, regulating digital asset securities would increase opportunities for clearing digital assets through a central depository. This would not necessarily green blockchains, but it would also result in energy efficiencies by bypassing blockchains. Today, very few people physically own their securities; securities are largely held in trust by a regulated third party, the Depository Trust Company DTC.

Third-party trustees holding digital asset securities in trust results in similar energy efficiency gains. As explained above, whenever a digital asset is bought or sold on a blockchain, computers undertake cryptographic computations to update the ledger.

In a system where digital assets are held in trust, for each individual asset, the blockchain is updated only once to grant ownership of an asset to the trust company, and cryptographic calculations are completed only to record that transfer. Some digital asset exchanges currently use this model, 59 while others still record all updates on the blockchain. This has resulted in disjointed markets in which investors may only transact with others on the same exchange and any transactions between or off exchanges are energy intensive.

If digital asset exchanges were to become subject to SEC regulations, requirements that they use trust companies that interface fully with one another could incentivize the creation of a single trustee for all digital asset securities. This single trustee could record all digital asset security transactions on its own ledger, removing the need for energy-intensive blockchain transactions entirely.

Digital asset markets are rife with abuse. These abuses should not occur, especially as the law already exists to put a stop to most of them. These latter plans and rules would mean that brokerages and exchanges have minimal errors and outages and that investors have continuous market access.

No new regulations would be required; the SEC would only have to enforce the law. Regardless of whether the SEC acknowledges that a particular digital asset is a security or that a particular actor transacts in securities, private-party investors are permitted to bring suit against these actors under the securities laws.

Having the SEC and the broker membership organization the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority FINRA —both of which have significant resources—involved in surveillance and enforcement would allow for greater execution of the securities rules and regulations, beyond what may be obtained through investor lawsuits alone.

Beyond the SEC requirements, exchanges could impose listing standards on digital asset securities in ways that protect investors. It has been said that the primary uses for digital assets are to evade financial sanctions and collect ransoms. As the Colonial Pipeline hack demonstrated, this can have significant real-world consequences. These blatant violations of the law are possible because individuals can trade digital assets with pseudonymity; although all transactions are registered on a blockchain, it is possible for people to set up and use digital asset wallets without verifying their identities.

Treasury over the next decade as a result of U. The markets for digital assets are a growing area of interest to investors and a growing area of concern for legislators and regulators; without market oversight and the transparency that regulation brings, not only will investors not understand the risks to their investments and be liable to be significantly harmed, but the purported benefits of digital assets will also certainly fail to come to fruition.

Fortunately, although new legislation may be necessary in the future, regulators already have at least some legal authority—through enforcing the rules already in place and drafting new regulations—to address any issues that digital assets raise. This report has discussed the authority of the SEC to regulate digital asset securities, as well as the brokers, dealers, and exchanges that facilitate their transactions, and has encouraged it to do so in ways that improve the climate footprint of the assets, protect consumers, and prevent money laundering and tax evasion.

The SEC must act with all deliberate speed. Although the SEC only has jurisdiction over securities and the brokers, dealers, and exchanges that transact in securities, it may still regulate the nonsecurities activities of these securities market participants.

Even if an exchange lists just one digital asset security, the SEC may regulate that exchange for all digital assets trading on the platform. Other regulators must also pursue digital asset regulation to the fullest extent of their authorities, as delaying action will increase investor and consumer harm and exacerbate unnecessary risks.

The CFTC must regulate digital asset derivatives, digital assets that are commodity or currency derivatives themselves, and spot transactions without actual delivery taken on margin; the FTC must act to prevent fraud and manipulation in the nonsecurities, nonderivatives digital asset markets; and FinCEN and the banking regulators must ensure that money transmitters and digital assets that are currencies follow anti-money laundering laws.

In addition, although new legislation may be necessary in the future to address digital asset markets, regulators need one thing from Congress now: appropriations sufficient to address the magnitude of the digital asset markets. Regulators need resources to write rules, inspect and examine market actors for compliance, and bring enforcement actions in this developing area while continuing to ensure the proper functioning of traditional markets.

Congress must ensure that regulators have the resources necessary to effectuate the laws already in place. SEC v. Howey Co. Reves v. Securities and Exchange Commission v. Ripple Labs , complaint, U. Darren J. Douglas C. United States v.

Ross William Ulbricht , complaint, U. Should They? The positions of American Progress, and our policy experts, are independent, and the findings and conclusions presented are those of American Progress alone. A full list of supporters is available here.

American Progress would like to acknowledge the many generous supporters who make our work possible. Sam Hananel Director, Media Relations. Peter Gordon Director, Federal Affairs.

Madeline Shepherd Director, Federal Affairs. In this article. InProgress Stay updated on our work on the most pressing issues of our time.

In part because digital assets have largely been unregulated, their prices are frequently manipulated, market participants are too often defrauded or simply exploited, assets are stolen outright, and taxes owed are often not reported, let alone paid. It is important for the SEC to exercise its authority over digital assets and associated market infrastructure to the greatest extent allowed by law.

Protecting investors Digital asset markets are rife with abuse. Preventing money laundering, tax evasion, and criminal activities It has been said that the primary uses for digital assets are to evade financial sanctions and collect ransoms. Dirk G.

A Review on Blockchain Technology and Blockchain Projects Fostering Open Science

On the ground floor of the cafe, Singh displays the art he created , and on the other floors, he displays the art that he has collected. Some of these artists have sold pieces for hundreds of thousands of dollars. His favorite piece came from "an art-swap with fellow artist Gabriella Barouch," Singh says. Though he is bullish on NFTs, Singh stresses the importance of spending only what you can afford to lose. Some projects are quite risky. For Singh, it's been worth it to spend more than six figures on NFTs because of his belief in the community and the technology overall.

This article is for those who want to learn the basics about this the blockchain However, Ethereum has been planning to switch to.

A Systematic Literature Review of Blockchain Technology for Smart Villages

Published Online: January 28, Published Online: January 27, Published Online: January 26, Management Science has compiled a list of papers published in the journal in the last few years in its Finance department. These papers cover all major fields of financial research and hence the website can serve as a resource for research done by the Finance and Management Science communities. Our hope is that these papers will inform policy, impact education, and motivate new research. Click here to see the collection. The Management Science Replication Project is designed to solidly establish or not key findings of highly impactful experimental papers in the journal Management Science through high-powered replication across multiple locations.

65% of Americans Make This Mistake After Investing in Crypto

67 blockchain articles

Metrics details. Blockchain is a shared distributed digital ledger technology that can better facilitate data management, provenance and security, and has the potential to transform healthcare. Importantly, blockchain represents a data architecture, whose application goes far beyond Bitcoin — the cryptocurrency that relies on blockchain and has popularized the technology. In the health sector, blockchain is being aggressively explored by various stakeholders to optimize business processes, lower costs, improve patient outcomes, enhance compliance, and enable better use of healthcare-related data. In addition, answering the real needs of healthcare stakeholders, blockchain approaches must also be responsive to the unique challenges faced in healthcare compared to other sectors of the economy.

We present the first measurement study of JoinMarket, a growing marketplace for more anonymous transfers in the Bitcoin ecosystem.


The cryptocurrency was invented in by an unknown person or group of people using the name Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoins are created as a reward for a process known as mining. They can be exchanged for other currencies, products, and services. Bitcoin has been criticized for its use in illegal transactions, the large amount of electricity and thus carbon footprint used by mining, price volatility , and thefts from exchanges. Some investors and economists have characterized it as a speculative bubble at various times. Others have used it as an investment, although several regulatory agencies have issued investor alerts about bitcoin.


One of the main priorities of the modern healthcare system is the transportation of pharmaceutical products. The drug supply chain consists of many participants. These are drug manufacturers, intermediary organizations, and end users. The biggest problems associated with this transportation are temperature monitoring and the quality of the offered products. This is because many drugs and vaccines remain viable within a certain temperature range. As soon as the temperature regime during transportation is violated, the quality of the medicine decreases sharply.

Articles de fond. ALJB - Bulletin Droit & Banque N° 67 – Décembre The second type of crypto-asset is the asset-.

Top 5 Websites to learn Blockchain in 2022 - Best of Lot

A cryptocurrency , crypto-currency , or crypto is a digital currency designed to work as a medium of exchange through a computer network that is not reliant on any central authority, such as a government or bank , to uphold or maintain it. Individual coin ownership records are stored in a digital ledger , which is a computerized database using strong cryptography to secure transaction records, to control the creation of additional coins, and to verify the transfer of coin ownership. In a proof-of-stake model, owners put up their tokens as collateral. In return, they get authority over the token in proportion to the amount they stake.

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Technology convergence assessment: Case of blockchain within the IR 4.0 platform

Web and Social : joshuafairfield. Joshua Fairfield. Joshua Fairfield is an internationally recognized law and technology scholar, specializing in digital property, electronic contract, big data privacy, and virtual communities. He has written on the law and regulation of e-commerce and online contracts and on the application of standard economic models to virtual environments. Professor Fairfield's current research focuses on big data privacy models and the next generation of legal applications for cryptocurrencies. His articles on protecting consumer interests in an age of mass-market consumer contracting regularly appear in top law and law-and-technology journals, and policy pieces on consumer protection and technology have appeared in the New York Times, Forbes, and the Financial Times, among other outlets.

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