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- Hyip Script Shop - Bitcoin Doubler, Hyip manager, Mining ...
- Jak dobrać ramę do roweru dla dziecka?
- Brock Larson
- The Trouble with "Free Riding"
- Environmental Code of Practice
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- John Tukey
- Cryptocurrency Market Crash Based On Questionable U.S. Treasury Crackdown Rumor
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Posts Comments. This week, one of my favorite podcasts, EconTalk, features one of my favorite Internet visionaries, Clay Shirky. I interviewed Shirky when his book came out back in April. The host, Russ Roberts, covered some of the same ground, but also explored some different topics, so it was an enjoyable listen. They misunderstood the pure pleasure that overcomes some of that free-rider problem. I think even that is conceding too much. This is more than a semantic point. The first assumption is that the production of content is a net cost that must either be borne by the producer or compensated by consumers.
Moreover, the real world abounds in counterexamples. The same principle applies to Wikipedia. Participating in Wikipedia is a net positive experience for both readers and editors. Neither would an airline in which only one percent of the customers paid for their tickets. All that matters is whether the absolute number of contributors is adequate. A tiny free software project in which every user contributes code is in a much worse position than a massively popular software project like Firefox in which But the far more important objective for an online collaborative effort to is grow the total size of the user community.
I think this misplaced focus on free-riding relates to the Robert Laughlin talk I discussed on Wednesday. Companies that sell products made out of atoms would obviously go bankrupt if they tried to give away an unlimited number of their products. The ability to enable people to enjoy free use and access to culture and knowledge is the sort of thing that unites us is it not?
To have people ride freely upon our cultural commonwealth is our aspiration. However, that should not deny or prevent a free market in cultural work. If you want a bug fixed, no doubt you will find someone in a free market who will willingly exchange their labour in producing a fix for your monetary value of that fix.
Nevertheless, we do not need to compel publication of the fix, nor do we need to enable the author to constrain those who receive it against their will. And if people value the source far more than the binary, then the source will attract a far higher price, which authors would be highly unlikely to forego if there was no incentive to keep the source secret.
I very much doubt Blender would have sold for as much as it did had only a freely redistributable binary been offered. But, the fact that the binary is far less valuable than the source would not make its sale unethical. If anything, its free distribution would help demonstrate the availablity and market for the source. Thus the problem for the software producer is not free riders since the world is supposed to embrace them for culture , but in finding enough interested customers who value their work and will collaborate in collecting sufficient funds that the producer will find equitable in exchange.
Bounties, ransoms, digital art auctions: these are the mechanisms that enable the exchange of free culture for money — without copyright, patent, compulsory reciprocation, or violation of privacy.
This is surely part of the reason why there is only one Wikipedia and why it should be compared not only to Britannica but to encylopedias of all kinds especially trivia collections.
It is, after all, the free riders that are behaving rationally! Once upon a time I was a physicist. If someone floated into the physics department wearing an anti-gravity belt, every single physicist would drop what he or she was doing and try to figure out what was going on. Things like Wikipedia are the economic equivalent of an anti-gravity belt, but for some reason I have found, amongst the economists I talk to, a remarkable lack of curiosity about what the implications are of the existence of Wikipedia on their model of how people behave and how markets work.
Suppose I was to keep a notebook with indexed details of all the relevant bits and pieces that I might read about or discover, would the cost of keeping the notebook overwhelm the benefit of having it as a reference to go back to? Further suppose that I can merge my notebook with just one other person, and we both have approximately the same cost, but now we double the benefit no not really double, but good. Is it worth the merge? If I was keeping the notebook anyhow, and the overhead of the merge is minimal then might as well do it.
So Wikipedia is essentially just a bigger merge. Another way to look at it is that we could all agree that it is rational to at least READ wikipedia, even if you never edit. It is after all a useful reference. But then, if the reference has an obvious defect, omission or plainly incorrect fact then might as well fix that up, because it only takes a moment and then you have a better reference.
I grow roses in front of my house, because I like the roses, not because I want to impress anyone. Some people walk down the street and also enjoy walking past my roses, but that does not make me angry because I have all the roses I want. Instead, try a different assumption: people do contribute to Wikipedia; now ask, Why do they do it?
There are plenty of reasons. First up is entertainment value: the value of simply spending time on something that is interesting. Doing so is diverting; amusing; entertaining.
Human beings are the kind of creatures who seek diversion and entertainment. People like to feel that they have done something useful. Contributing to an open-source project, including Wikipedia, gives them this pleasant sensation, whose origins probably have something to do with the evolution of humans as members of society.
They need not suggest that everyone should contribute to Wikipedia … after all, in reality, only a tiny number of people do. Most people prefer to watch American Idol rather than posting blog comments. I do not; I find American Idol tedious and not-entertaining.
Do not assume that you know all the reasons that someone might do something, and that anyone who does something not in that list must be acting irrationally. Instead, assume that people do have reasons and motives for their actions, and inquire curiously and open-mindedly into what those motives might be. You will thus learn much more about humanity than you would by sticking with simple-minded assumptions.
Please feel free to dig some up and put it on that pile on the left. And by the way, if you want to take some coal off the pile, feel free to do so, no questions asked. What do we think would happen in such a case? I think most people would agree that, absent some special circumstance, this would go nowhere. Though history offers lots of examples of people who believed otherwise, utopian socialists and the like.
It comes up quite often. It is the reason offered for privatizing everything from fishing rights to the national parks. Yet here we have an example of a very-non-tragic commons. Now, you say, digging coal is different from writing in Wikipedia. Sure, it is; but as I said before, that is nothing but an excuse for the failure of a model, not a model itself. What is different about writing than digging?
Or maybe the verb is irrelevant — is something else going on? That is what is missing here. If you take some coal from the pile of coal, there is less coal left for everyone else. If you read some information from a pile of information, there is the same amount of information left over. How can we keep it working, and indeed improve it, if we care to do so? We must assume that they do so because they get some sort of benefit out of it. So, how can we characterize that benefit?
This is the sort of thing I refer to as an excuse, not a model. Wikipedia is not like that, but no one has explained why. In other words: Editing Wikipedia is fun.
People choose to do it for recreational value and intellectual stimulation. I guess the obvious corollory of that is that if cleaning up the sidewalks was somehow made fun, then more people would do that too. If a theory cannot deal with the evidence then we need to beat on the theory harder until everyone has forgotten the evidence, and then ask for more money. If anything, Wiki demonstrates the need for more first-hand recording, publishing and publicizing of important events and movements.
The devotion to market solutions advocated by libertarians often stems from a belief in how markets work and the way they allocate resources. The question remains: the real problem is to explain why Wikipedia exists at all, and why it is within error bars the equal of the Encyclopedia Britannica in many ways. This is what Roberts was talking about, it seems to me. But your uncharitable interpretation of libertarianism aside, I agree that there are interesting theoretical questions here that no one has managed to answer satisfactorily.
I think Benkler is the best place to start. A free and competitive market allocates resources in the most efficient manner. Each person has the right to offer goods and services to others on the free market.
The only proper role of government in the economic realm is to protect property rights, adjudicate disputes, and provide a legal framework in which voluntary trade is protected.
All efforts by government to redistribute wealth, or to control or manage trade, are improper in a free society. The question is why it is able to compete with the Encyclopedia Britanica, which uses a conventional way of moving utility around the reader pays for it, the publisher hires experts to write sections, and fact-checks and assembles them, etc.
It is amusing to note that Bekler is a Lawyer and not an economist. It does look interesting, and I will have to read his paper in greater depth. I think the LP passage you quoted is actually consistent with the Wikipedia experience. I only used the Libertarian Party platform as an example.
I could cite many examples of similar lines of thought from lots of libertarian sources, Reason Magazine say. Perhaps you will reply that the Objectivist strain of libertarianism is just the most popular kind. That has certainly not been evident in my reading of him. Friedman opposed government regulation of all sorts, as well as public schooling.
Jak dobrać ramę do roweru dla dziecka?
But great discoveries can come from laziness, and so after seeing an old vagrant ride a city bus to the end of the line and get strangled by a weightlifter under Santa Monica Pier, the story moved to an L. The first show did not reek of tough-guy promise. First of all, he turned down the job he was hired for not once but twice, and except for his California P. His concerns seemed unheroic and, perhaps worst of all, he did not even carry a gun, keeping one only for emergencies in a cookie jar in the kitchen of his house trailer. It did for me. By cheating a little, it seemed a clever man could take down a bully. I was hooked.
If you hold cryptocurrency as I do about 28 of them at last count , you were shocked to see a deep dive in the growth curve this Sunday morning after an amazing period of constant growth. For me to find that the downward movement of an entire market was based on nothing more than a single tweet sent me into investigative action. After all, a 14 percent drop in the entire cryptocurrency market, reflected in a sea of red-ink rate-of-growth declines, is nothing to ignore. Although unconfirmed, this crash seems to coincide with tweets stating that the U. But a simple check of The U. And if she did, why are investors running scared over what should be seen as an action that helps, not hurts, the market? And while it is true that Secretary Yellen has raised concerns about use of bitcoin for illegal actions, she and others who hold such concerns saw their view aggressively countered by former CIA director Michael J Morell. Afer all, I believed that Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies are a largely anonymous way to transfer funds anywhere in the world nearly instantaneously. It is true that cryptocurrency, like other new technologies and innovations, has attracted the attention of illicit actors.
The Trouble with "Free Riding"
Click here to search Bob Jensen's web site if you have key words to enter Search Site. September Bob Jensen's New Additions to Bookmarks. Bob Jensen at Trinity University. Jensen Comment Among departments and schools of accountancy, I would previously have recommended that every unit appoint one faculty member to liaison with the Commons of the AAA.
Environmental Code of Practice
It is one of the pioneering schools of mixed martial arts MMA. Within 24 hours, the dispute was resolved and all fighters signed back into the organization. AKA has also been criticized by MMA fans and journalists, as well as by Dana White, for what is perceived as an excessively high rate of training injuries leading to fight cancellations among its stable of fighters. American Kickboxing Academy - Wikipedia Mobile. Martial arts gym in San Jose, California.
Thousands of U. One of the true things President Biden said at his press conference was that only Vladimir Putin will make the decision on whether to invade Ukraine. This has been a vigorous debate not only in the greater foreign-policy world but here at National Review. Michael Brendan Dougherty has been making the most robust case for keeping our distance:. Our interest is to avoid a conflict with Russia over matters that it defines as in its core interest, a territory that its own people consider significant to their security interests, and which ours overwhelming do not.
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She was twice world champion in women's double sculls with Philippa Baker , and they were both inducted into the New Zealand Sports Hall of Fame in Lawson was born in in Nelson ;  her mother is Val Wilson. She received her education at Nayland College and lived in Nelson until age 17, when she left to progress her rowing career. Lawson rowed for clubs in Wairau, Hamilton , and Whanganui.
Brock Orville Larson born August 23, is a retired American professional mixed martial artist who competed in the Welterweight and Middleweight divisions. Larson is from Brainerd, Minnesota and was raised on a beef farm. Larson began competing in wrestling from a young age, continuing with the sport at Brainerd High School. Later while attending Itasca Community College , Larson was introduced to Brazilian jiu-jitsu by a friend.
Cryptocurrency Market Crash Based On Questionable U.S. Treasury Crackdown Rumor
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