Virtual currencies other than bitcoin calculator

Monetary Policy Principles and Practice. Exchange Rates and International Data. Several years ago, innovation in financial markets began to generate discussion of digital tokens and tokenization of financial assets. When these ideas first entered the public discourse, they were used to help illustrate a possible future state where financial instruments could be turned into digital objects and transferred in real time across the globe without financial intermediaries.



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Monetary Policy Principles and Practice. Exchange Rates and International Data. Several years ago, innovation in financial markets began to generate discussion of digital tokens and tokenization of financial assets.

When these ideas first entered the public discourse, they were used to help illustrate a possible future state where financial instruments could be turned into digital objects and transferred in real time across the globe without financial intermediaries.

Technology startups proposed digital tokens tied to fiat currencies and other assets for example, gold, diamonds, and other commodities. As work in these areas progressed from speculative ideation to concrete technology development, central banks began actively researching digital tokens through distributed ledger technology DLT experiments. Despite the prevalence of the terms "token" and "tokenization," their meanings are still confusing to most. What is a token from a technical perspective, and from a conceptual or functional perspective?

Many people use "token" as if its meaning were self-evident. References to tokens in the economics literature, computer science publications, technology blog posts, and general newspapers are inconsistent, as different people use the term to describe different but related things. Is a token a physical object, a digital object, something defined by a smart contract, or something else entirely? This lack of consistency has arguably led to further confusion and miscommunication.

Understanding the context in which tokens are referred to is important to understanding digital currencies. The goal of this note is not to propose new terminology or definitions, but rather to provide guidance that can help prevent potential confusion or miscommunication in the use of the terms "token" and "account".

The first section of this note explains how the cryptocurrency community has approached the concepts of tokens and tokenization.

The second section looks at the domains of payment economics and central banks, and discusses tokens in the context of CBDC. The note concludes by highlighting some issues with the "tokens vs.

Terminology regarding tokens in the cryptocurrency community has evolved, with no sole authority on exact definitions. Current concepts of tokens and tokenization likely originate from their usage in the context of Ethereum, a large public blockchain that offers a robust programming capability in the form of so-called smart contracts.

An early use case for this flexible programmability was the definition of custom assets, and the Ethereum community proposed a standard for fungible units of value termed "tokens" shortly after its public launch. The adopted standard, widely known by its proposal identifier ERC, is arguably the primary reference point for the concept of tokens on Ethereum and other public blockchains today.

The public Ethereum blockchain, launched in , was inspired by the core design of Bitcoin as a distributed ledger that does not require a central authority to coordinate agreement on its contents. While Bitcoin does allow for the programming of spending conditions applicable to certain discrete amounts of bitcoin, Ethereum's design allows for the creation of generalized computer programs known as smart contracts, which are executable code stored on the Ethereum blockchain.

An early use case for smart contracts was the programmatic definition of assets or representations thereof on a blockchain. The general idea was that a smart contract could define its own ledger for tracking user balances of a token essentially a sub-ledger of Ethereum, specific to that particular smart contract and allowing users to transact in the asset represented by that token. Given the flexibility of smart contracts programming on Ethereum, there are a great many ways to implement such a system; thus, in order to allow for more consistent interoperability of tokens, a standard interface for fungible tokens was proposed and adopted shortly after Ethereum's launch.

This standard is known by its proposal number, ERC Tokens issued by smart contracts that adhere to this standard are referred to as ERC tokens. The widespread adoption of the ERC standard has likely helped shape the notion of a "cryptocurrency token" as a custom asset issued on top of a blockchain through the use of smart contracts.

Other blockchain platforms which have followed Ethereum's lead in offering flexible programming capability, such as Eos, Cardano, Tezos, and Stellar, all allow for the issuance of custom assets that the cryptocurrency community terms tokens. Ethereum has a native cryptocurrency, "ether", that is used to pay for all transactions processed by the network.

Ether itself, however, is not an ERC token; rather, it is an intrinsic part of the blockchain platform which predates the existence of any ERC tokens. A simple user-to-user transfer of ether may incur a low fee, while a call to a smart contract function that performs a large amount of mathematical computation may incur a high fee.

This fee-for-computation policy means that the functions for interacting with ERC smart contracts as described above, such as sending ERC tokens from one user to another, incur their own transaction fees denominated in ether.

Thus, while it is possible to transact value denominated in ether without the need for any other payment instrument, the same is not true of ERC tokens: in order to transact in the latter, a user must also maintain a balance of ether for paying network transaction fees. Chief among Ethereum's functionalities is electronic recordkeeping. Unlike Bitcoin, which handles recordkeeping using a format known as "unspent transaction outputs" also referred to as UTXO , Ethereum records information via account addresses.

While software for controlling user balances of these tokens has come to be known as a "cryptocurrency wallet", such wallets do not hold anything with a unit of value as the name might suggest. Rather, a cryptocurrency wallet holds a private key that allows its holder to authorize transactions on a blockchain platform, in a manner loosely akin to placing one's signature on a check.

While tokens may be viewed or controlled via wallet software, to the extent that they "exist," it is only in the replicated databases maintained by a blockchain platform's computational nodes and in the form of an account balance, not as a digital "object" in the wallet software itself.

Once a person controls tokens on the network, they can transfer control of those tokens to others. The sender and recipient of the tokens do not need to have a relationship with the token issuer; they simply need an Ethereum address for which they control the private key. The sender initiates the transfer by cryptographically signing and submitting to the Ethereum network a message that will deduct tokens from their balance and add them to the balance of the recipient's account.

After the sender has used their private key to authorize the reassignment of control of some quantity of their tokens to someone else, that recipient now has the ability to use their own private key to transfer the tokens from their account balance in the same manner. Importantly, no unique digital information owned by the sender is transferred to the recipient's cryptocurrency wallet.

Since Ethereum launched, a number of other blockchain projects have appeared that also offer the capability to issue tokens. Despite differences in the technology underlying these platforms, the conceptualization of tokens as programmatically-defined units of value that can be transacted on those platforms and tracked via account balances, remains a common feature.

In addition to fungible tokens which have been described above in detail through explanation of the ERC standard , blockchain platforms may also support non-fungible tokens. Any blockchain platform offering sufficiently flexible programming typically has the capability of implementing functionality for non-fungible tokens.

The use of tokens in money and banking date back several centuries. Traditionally, the term "token" has been used to describe physical objects representing value, such as precious metals or official coinage that acted as symbolic representations of value and could be used to make payments. Ownership of these early tokens was determined solely by physical possession. The most common way a person could come to own a monetary token was by trading for it with goods or services.

In any such trade, transfers happened bilaterally between individuals. Crucially, physical monetary systems relied heavily on the assumption that such a token was difficult to replicate.

If it could be copied easily, users could effectively create their own money at will, thereby debasing its value. The exchange of tokens between individuals eventually led to the use of "accounts" to record asset ownership more easily and to facilitate more-complex trading and financial transactions. When combined with specialized institutions and processes, accounts allow for easy transfers between participants. Instead of carrying coins or precious metals or any other tradeable goods, for that matter , merchants could keep accounts with a third party, such as a bank.

For example, a bank in Renaissance-era Venice might have kept accounts for merchants on a paper ledger and allowed account holders to transfer balances from one person to another without any physical exchange of assets between the transacting parties. If the merchants needed physical money, they could clear out some or all of their bank account balances in exchange for an equal value in physical tokens.

Although this idea — of money existing either as physical objects or as records in a ledger — predates the creation of fiat currency by states, it has obvious parallels to the central banking world. Central banks have historically issued money in two forms: cash and deposits. Cash is a physical form of money. It is widely available to the general public for a variety of uses, and it can be transferred from person to person anonymously. In addition, cash has built-in security features to make physical money easy to authenticate but difficult to counterfeit.

For these reasons, cash, as we use it today, is analogous to the historical notion of a monetary token. Deposits, such as reserve and settlement balances, are an electronic form of money represented using accounts. They are typically only available to a limited set of entities, certain financial institutions and the official sector, for specific purposes. In recent years, new formulations and categorization of money have arisen.

In , Kahn and Roberds wrote a seminal paper on payments economics that formalized the distinction between what the authors describe as "account-based" payment systems and "store-of-value" payment systems. In their formulation, the traditional concept of a "token" can be viewed as embodying the "store-of-value" systems.

As conversations evolved within the central banking community on CBDC, the verification-based distinction between "accounts" and "store of value" or "tokens" proposed by Kahn and Roberds was extended to CBDC. These definitions are agnostic to any technology.

Many central bank reports and speeches, as well as economics papers, have taken a similar approach by categorizing tokens as distinct from accounts, and by focusing on the object of verification that is, verification of the token's authenticity or the user's identity as a key determinant of CBDC classification.

Taken as a whole, this central banking view of tokens and accounts is the byproduct of a desire to be both general technology-agnostic and categorical tokens are distinct from accounts.

The tokens concept is used, in some sense, as a short-hand for digital units of value that can be transferred anonymously, and offers a generic description for how that might happen authenticating an "object". As a practical matter, however, central banks often shy away from describing how, exactly, tokens are recorded using a digital recordkeeping system — except to avoid suggesting they are tracked in an account-like structure or using accounting entries.

Accounts, from this CBDC perspective, are understood mainly as a shorthand for "traditional" bank accounts maintained by entities in centralized or hub-and-spoke systems.

The tokens and accounts dichotomy for CBDC may be confusing because the cryptocurrency and central banking communities use the terms in different ways. While tokens in the cryptocurrency community are generally understood as programmatically defined assets on a blockchain, the central bank view of a CBDC token in the tradition of Kahn and Roberds' dichotomy refers only to a notional "object" that is never strictly defined.

What the cryptocurrency community calls tokens can be tracked in a form that central bankers might recognize as accounts, whereas in the central banking community, tokens and accounts refer to distinct potential designs for a CBDC. These different uses for the same terms may have led to misunderstanding regarding how CBDCs could and should be designed.

Recently, several researchers have come to similar conclusions regarding the challenges caused by the ambiguity and lack of consistency in the tokens and accounts terminology. The token and accounts dichotomy raises a few important issues.

Attempting to create a distinction between the two may obscure or even misrepresent what is happening from a technical perspective. As noted above, tokens can operate within the context of accounts in the cryptocurrency community — this is true for many such digital currency systems. For example, accessing a bank account in some jurisdictions, such as those jurisdictions with weak anti-money laundering requirements, may involve knowing a secret piece of information, rather than having an identity verified.

Accounts need identifiers, but those are not the same as identities. The second issue is the concept of a "digital object" form of money that can be stored locally. The metaphor of a coin, object, or bearer instrument living in a wallet or locally on someone's machine raises significant questions regarding technological feasibility, safety, and security. What can be stored locally is a private key that allows for the transfer of the tokens on the blockchain. Importantly, what is stored or possessed by the end user has consequences for how we think about bearer instruments in the digital world: Is a private key that allows for the transfer of tokens on a blockchain a bearer instrument?

Should a private key be treated as a legal equivalent to physically holding the token or asset? Systems that feature true local storage of the asset itself, coupled with offline peer-to-peer transfer capabilities, have value as a conceptual tool for analysis, but there remain questions about their development, secure operation, and widespread distribution. In the meantime, calling these systems and blockchain-based systems "token-based," further obscures the diverse technological underpinnings of each form of electronic recordkeeping.

The third issue is that digital tokens are fundamentally just pieces of information in both cryptocurrency and central banking. When talking about tokens in cryptocurrency, we may not necessarily associate a value with them — in a public system such as Ethereum, for example, anyone wishing to do so can deploy a new smart contract defining tokens that may have no explicit use and, consequently, have no transactional value.

Certain tokens may even be specifically designed and deployed without any payments or financial use case in mind.



There are enough ways we can regulate cryptos

Is there a cryptocurrency tax? If you've invested in Bitcoin or another form of cryptocurrency, understand how the IRS taxes these types of investments and what constitutes a taxable event. Interest in cryptocurrency has grown tremendously in the last several years. Whether you accept or pay with cryptocurrency, invested in it, are an experienced currency trader or you received a small amount as a gift, it's important to understand cryptocurrency tax implications. The term cryptocurrency refers to a type of digital asset that can be used to buy goods and services, although many people invest in cryptocurrency similarly to investing in shares of stock. Part of its appeal is that it's a decentralized medium of exchange, meaning it operates without the involvement of banks, financial institutions, or other central authorities. Cryptocurrency is also secure; transactions are encrypted with specialized computer code and recorded on a blockchain — a public, digital ledger in which every new entry must be reviewed and approved by all network members.

When we refer to cryptocurrency in this publication, we are talking about Bitcoin or other similar virtual currencies.

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In published guidance , the IRS has clearly stated that convertible virtual currencies, such as Bitcoin, are treated as property for tax purposes, and should not be treated as foreign currency. Virtual currency will be subject to the same general tax rules as all other property regarding when it should be included in gross income, the character of gain or loss, the basis of the property, etc. Read on as we explore Bitcoin tax and the fiscal hurdles associated with investing in this new type of currency. One of the most common uses of Bitcoin includes purchase for investment purposes. If a taxpayer purchases Bitcoin for investment purposes, the tax treatment is similar to buying and selling stock. The sale or exchange of the purchased Bitcoin, held as an investment, causes the taxpayer to recognize a capital gain or loss. Individuals report capital gain or loss from the sale of bitcoin on Form and Schedule D.


Taxation on Cryptocurrency

virtual currencies other than bitcoin calculator

Take a look at the different investment options available in Australia which you might consider when creating a portfolio. If you put your money into cash investments such as savings accounts and term deposits , the returns will often be lower in comparison to other investment products. Fixed interest investments also known as fixed income or bonds usually have a set investment period eg five years , and provide predictable income in the form of regular interest payments. They tend to be less risky when compared to other types of investments, so can be used to provide balance and diversity in an investment portfolio.

There are several factors an individual might want to consider before converting cryptocurrency into cash. Cryptocurrency is now a popular investment option for younger people but you can't exactly spend your crypto in order to pay for your dinner.

12 smart investment options in Australia

Zcash defines itself to be the first open, permission-less cryptocurrency that can fully protect the privacy of transactions using zero-knowledge cryptography. A zero-knowledge proof construction, allowing the network to maintain a secure ledger of balances without disclosing the parties or amounts involved. The transaction metadata is encrypted, and zk-SNARKs are used to prove that nobody is cheating or stealing. Zcash allows users to send public payments, as with Bitcoin. Zcash supports both shielded and transparent addresses, giving users the option to send Zcash publicly or privately.


Virtual currency tax guidance and resources

Will Australia be launching eAUD? We take a look at what the experts predict. Bitcoin is not the only cryptocurrency out there, and some altcoins are doing some pretty interesting things. Have you heard of these? With the metaverse potentially shaping up as the future of online interaction, it looks set to become the place where crypto assets could finally win mainstream adoption.

Should you invest in these other cryptocurrencies besides Bitcoin? Cryptocurrencies are digital currencies that can be used for some online money.

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The IRS wants to know about your bitcoin and cryptocurrency activity this year

Virtual currency transactions are taxable by law just like transactions in any other property. Taxpayers transacting in virtual currency may have to report those transactions on their tax returns. Cryptocurrency is a type of virtual currency that utilizes cryptography to validate and secure transactions that are digitally recorded on a distributed ledger, such as a blockchain. Bitcoin is one example of a convertible virtual currency. Bitcoin can be digitally traded between users and can be purchased for, or exchanged into, U. The sale or other exchange of virtual currencies, or the use of virtual currencies to pay for goods or services, or holding virtual currencies as an investment, generally has tax consequences that could result in tax liability.

As bitcoin continues to lose value , cryptocurrency investors, speculators and enthusiasts are now confronting another hurdle -- the official beginning of a potentially nightmarish tax season.

Updated on : Jan 13, - PM. A cryptocurrency can be defined as a decentralised digital asset and a medium of exchange based on blockchain technology. In layman language, cryptocurrencies are digital currencies designed to buy goods and services, similar to our other used currencies. However, since the beginning, it has largely been controversial due to its decentralised nature, meaning its operation without any intermediary like banks, financial institutions, or central authorities. The investment and trading volume of cryptocurrencies has increased multifold since the nationwide lockdown.

Cryptocurrencies are also known as virtual currencies or digital currencies. They are a form of digital token. There are many different types of cryptocurrency — Bitcoin, Tether, Ether and many others.


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  1. Bracage

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  2. Trophonius

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