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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Presently modern technology makes a significant contribution to the transition from traditional healthcare to smart healthcare systems. Mobile health mHealth uses advances in wearable sensors, telecommunications and the Internet of Things IoT to propose a new healthcare concept centered on the patient. However, major limitations include the transparency, security, and privacy of health data.

One possible solution to this is the use of blockchain technologies, which have found numerous applications in the healthcare domain mainly due to theirs features such as decentralization no central authority is needed , immutability, traceability, and transparency. We propose an mHealth system that uses a private blockchain based on the Ethereum platform, where wearable sensors can communicate with a smart device a smartphone or smart tablet that uses a peer-to-peer hypermedia protocol, the InterPlanetary File System IPFS , for the distributed storage of health-related data.

Smart contracts are used to create data queries, to access patient data by healthcare providers, to record diagnostic, treatment, and therapy, and to send alerts to patients and medical professionals.

Mobile communication, mobile devices, and the Internet of Things IoT have changed entire sectors, such as education, transportation, agriculture, etc. The use of IoT, through which people, processes, data, and devices connect to each other over the Internet, is experiencing considerable growth: mobile machine-to-machine M2M connections are expected to grow from 1.

Also, the number of smartphones is forecast to grow from 4. Presently, mobile technology is reshaping the traditional healthcare model into the so-called mobile health mHealth model, placing the patient at the center of the healthcare system and motivating patients to assume responsibility for their own wellbeing [ 2 ]. A complete mHealth system consists of interconnected wearable sensors, IoT services, mobile devices, mobile applications, and cloud services.

Thus, mHealth systems enable remote patient monitoring, rehabilitation, therapy, diagnosis, and treatment. Moreover, the health data collected from groups of patients through mHealth systems can be used in medical research clinical trials, randomized control trials, etc. In mHeatlh systems, because sensitive data is recorded, analyzed, shared, and stored, the main challenges are data provenance, access control, data integrity, and identity management.

However, a major limitation of mHealth systems is public trust, mainly due to possible security vulnerabilities that would allow medical data alteration, unauthorized sharing, data theft, data loss, etc. In the present paper, a blockchain-based mHealth framework is proposed that addresses security, data integrity, and data provenance challenges.

Blockchain technology has important features, such as traceability, transparency, decentralization no central authority is needed , and immutability. At the time of writing, there is no dedicated framework described in the literature based on blockchain for a complete mHealth system that also allows medical experts to directly interact with medical signals collected by wearable sensors to determine a diagnostic.

As discussed in the next sections, medical applications where blockchain technology is most used presently are electronic health records EHR. The core contributions of the proposed solution are:.

The design, implementation, and deployment of the blockchain network and the smart contract;. The implementation of a bidirectional functionality that offers the possibility for medical experts and patients to upload and monitor data in a continuous manner;. The implementation of an interface that permits medical experts to extract diagnostic information by interacting with physiological signals available on the proposed mHealth system.

The paper is structured as follows: in Section 2 , the concept of mHealth is introduced, emphasizing the role of wearable sensors and the challenges of mHealth systems; in Section 3 , the blockchain technology is described; the proposed mHealth framework is detailed in Section 4 , and the results, discussion, and conclusions are described and presented in Section 5 , Section 6 and Section 7. Through Internet-connected mHealth devices and sensors, medical staff have omnipresent access to health data enabling earlier disease detection and prevention , while patients can access and share health information and receive health counseling.

By offering the possibility of home monitoring, mHealth has also had a significant impact on the expense of healthcare. As described in Figure 1 , a complete mHealth service system comprises different technologies:. Wearable devices and sensor technology are used to monitor different biomedical parameters and signals e. IoT : Wearable devices are connected, usually in a wireless network, and can exchange information between each other and with other devices and systems over the Internet;.

Cloud servers and services : the volume of data generated by an mHealth system is usually stored in the cloud. Data can be also archived and used to train DL or ML models to predict the development of different diseases and to recommend possible care, treatment, and therapy [ 4 ];.

Mobile devices and applications : devices such as smart mobile phones and mobile tablets, together with specially designed health mobile applications can be used to visualize and interact with the patient data, to diagnose and offer health counseling and treatment.

Cardiopulmonary monitoring : signals such as phonocardiogram PCG , electrocardiogram ECG [ 5 ], and photoplethysmogram PPG [ 6 ] are recorded, and vital biomedical parameters are derived, including heart-rate HR , heart-rate variability HRV , health of heart valves, blood pressure, respiration rate, blood oxygen saturation, chest volume variation, etc.

Analysis of these bio-potential signals and biomedical parameters allows earlier detection and prevention of cardiovascular diseases, and helps both medical experts and patients manage cardiovascular problems better. In particular, the early detection of atrial fibrillation arrhythmia, most commonly, using mHealth systems can prevent strokes and reduce hospitalizations [ 13 , 14 , 15 ].

More than 50, patients were included in the study and the DNN was trained on more than 90, single-lead ECG signals. The results proved that the proposed DNN was able to classify different types of arrhythmia from single-lead ECG signals with high diagnostic performance similar to that of cardiologists [ 16 ];. Fitness level tracking : regular physical exercise is the main way to prevent obesity and to maintain a healthy lifestyle.

However, due to lack of time and motivation, high costs of monthly gym memberships and personal trainers, and sometimes due to special circulation restrictions e. In this case, mHealth systems can be used to monitor and assess workout exercises. Based on the fitness level of the user and on information collected by the sensors, the mHealth system can offer a personalized workout plan, suggestions for correct and efficient physical exercises execution, statistical feedback to help keep track of the fitness plan, etc.

For such mHealth applications, usually specific parameters and information are recorded, such as heart-rate, energy expenditure, temperature, skin perspiration, plantar pressure, speed and acceleration, position of the body or a specific part of the body e.

In addition, the data collected can be analyzed to predict possible injury [ 18 ]. Cancer : mHealth approaches can be used to improve screening rates for different types of cancer. In a recent review, 12 studies were analyzed, in which women were informed and reminded about their upcoming screening appointments for cervical cancer, via text message and mobile application [ 19 ].

The results showed that mHealth approaches may be an effective strategy to contact women for improving cervical cancer screening rates. The main concern of the participants was related to privacy and confidentiality aspects during the exchange of health information. In [ 20 ], the authors proposed a new mHealth system for the early detection of oral cancer in a rural population where no medical experts were available.

Frontline health workers FHP were trained to take images with smartphones and send them to medical experts, who in turn analyzed the images and suggested a diagnostic or possible treatment. The approach was evaluated and validated on more than 45, subjects, during a period of eight years — [ 20 , 21 ].

Brown-Johnson et al. A health game is developed that allows lung cancer patients to improve communication with their clinicians, to decrease lung cancer stigma and to obtain optimal self-management [ 22 ]. In [ 23 ], a mHealth platform was designed and implemented for tumor treatment. The wearable platform was controlled by a smartphone and targeted tumor therapy was conducted.

A significant prevention of tumor recurrence and tumor growth inhibition was reported. Psychiatry : patients suffering from mental disorders such as bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia have a high degree of cognitive and functional impairment, which drastically reduces the quality of life. The main objectives of mHealth approaches are to improve engagement with treatment and services. Thus, with the help of mHealth technologies, the following benefits can be obtained: i identifying patients who are at risk; ii encouraging exercise and behavior change; iii reminding the patient of the next appointment or to take the medication; iv self-management techniques; v monitoring symptoms in real time; vi developing personalized interventions and caring plans; vii identifying warning signs based on self-reports of wellbeing; and viii offering continuous professional counseling [ 24 , 25 ].

However, there are some barriers in the use of mHealth services that patients with severe mental illness may experience, including low income, unstable housing that can influence access to the Internet, cognitive impairment, and symptoms such as apathy, depression, low motivation, and paranoia. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that people with psychosis, despite experiencing these barriers, can make use of smart mobile technologies almost the same as the general population [ 24 , 26 ].

Wearable sensors are a key component of a mHealth systems, and are used to obtain reliable data regarding patient health, behavior, vital signs, activity, etc.

They are becoming popular in many health-related disciplines. The advances in sensor manufacturing technology have allowed the development of miniature sensors that are generally non-invasive, and which are revolutionizing the entire global health system. A variety of wearable sensors exist, depending on the target information to be recorded, processed, and analyzed.

When more sensors are used in an mHealth system, usually these are interconnected via some medium and they form a network of wearable sensors named an Wireless Body Area Network WBAN [ 43 , 43 ]. The sensors can exchange information between each other, and send it to a cloud server Figure 1. The use of a particular wireless protocol for creating a WBAN is directly dependent on the data collected by the wearable sensors and its intended medical application [ 45 ].

Wearable sensors used in mHealth systems can be classified as follows:. Bio-potential sensors : these sensors are called electrodes and they are used to acquire electrical signals generated by different types of tissue.

Electrodes can be integrated into patches that are applied to the skin or even clothes, creating so-called smart clothes [ 46 ]. Heart-rate sensors : the most common technology used for implementing these sensors in mHealth systems is photoplethysmography [ 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 ]. The intensity of the reflected light varies with blood volume variation at the location where the sensor is attached. However, a heart-rate can also be extracted from other signals e. Blood pressure sensors : these are used to obtain indirect estimates of systolic pressure SP , diastolic pressure DP , mean arterial pressure MAP , and pulse pressure PP.

Information about blood pressure can be derived from PPG signals [ 54 , 55 ]. Thus, using a sensor for photoplethysmography, heart-rate and blood pressure can be obtained.

However, there are sensors for mHealth that are based on the classic oscillometric measurement of blood pressure. A smartwatch can inflate a wrist cuff and, based on the oscillometric method, the SP and DP can be estimated [ 56 , 57 , 58 ].

Respiration rate sensor : usually, this type of sensor measures strains and is a piezoelectric sensor. The piezoelectric elements are included in a band-aid-like strap that can be put around the thorax, and with every inhalation and exhalation, the thorax moves, deforming the strap, and mechanical stress is applied to piezoelectric elements, generating an electrical voltage.

From this electrical signal, the respiration rate can be derived. These sensors can be also included in smart clothes. Other types of sensor measure the difference in air temperature, humidity, or air flow during a breathing cycle e.

These sensors can be integrated into face masks [ 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 ]. Also, more information about respiration function can be obtained using sensors integrated into smart face masks, such as respiratory minute volume, tidal volume, peak flow rate, and unique respiration patterns [ 63 ]. Galvanic skin response sensors : these are usually used to estimate the degree of cognitive and emotional arousal based on the electrodermal activity EDA or galvanic skin response GSR.

The EDA signal is obtained by placing 2 or 3 electrodes on the skin at hand level wrist, palm, or fingers. An electrical signal is passed between the electrodes and the resistance is measured. The sweat glands produce more sweat when an emotionally arousing stimulus is experienced, which in turn changes the resistance of the skin.

In mHealth applications, GSR sensors can be integrated in smart gloves or smart wristbands [ 68 , 69 , 70 , 71 ]. Temperature sensors : these are used to measure human body temperature. Flexible temperature sensors can be easily integrated into mHealth systems and are usually made from temperature-sensitive conductors or inks based on metals, nanomaterials, or conductive polymers [ 72 ].

Body motion tracking sensors : these types of sensors are very widespread in mHealth applications for monitoring daily physical activity by tracking step count or by identifying the type of physical exercise performed.

They can also be used to monitor body position, identify falls and assess fall risk in older people, or in patients during walking rehabilitation [ 73 , 74 , 75 ]. Changes in velocity, acceleration, body position patterns, which are used to map body movement, are determined from signals acquired with different types of sensors, including barometers, magnetometers, accelerometers, and gyroscopes.

Also, a combination of two or more sensors are used to provide a more precise record of body motion. There are still barriers that must be overcome, including energy consumption, system failure, patient security, data security, data accuracy, data collection infrastructure to manage the high volume of patient data, etc.

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A. "[bitcoin] drops from $33 high in August to below $2 as cost of 'mining' coins falls below real-world exchange rate" B. "The value of Bitcoins.

A Blockchain-Enabled Framework for mHealth Systems

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to improve your browsing experience on our site, show personalized content and targeted ads, analyze site traffic, and understand where our audiences come from. To learn more or opt-out, read our Cookie Policy. Samsung is one of the first major smartphone makers to include a cryptocurrency wallet in its latest flagship Galaxy S10 phones. The wallet lets users store bitcoin, Ethereum, and a beauty-related cryptocurrency called Cosmo Coin. It's a cold storage wallet, meaning it's not connected to the internet. Cosmochain, the South Korean blockchain startup behind Cosmee, describes its app to The Verge as a blockchain-powered beauty review app — the blockchain is supposed to be a useful way to record all the reviews reliably. Samsung also announced support for the cryptocurrency called the Enjin Coin, an Ethereum-based digital currency for gamers that was founded in South Korea. It also said it would support contactless payments using cryptocurrency. Samsung is one of a few companies that have launched blockchain-related phones, and its participation in the trend could influence other players in the market.

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coinbase wallet miner fee high blood pressure

We use cookies to allow us and selected partners to improve your experience and our advertising. By continuing to browse you consent to our use of cookies. You can understand more and change your cookies preferences here. Bitcoin is one of thousands of cryptocurrencies also referred to as 'digital' or 'virtual' currency that aren't controlled by any country, treasury or central bank. Bitcoin was created in by an anonymous developer, who went by the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto, and hit the mainstream in following a rise in its value.

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The Bitcoin network is burning a large amount of energy for mining. In this paper, we estimate the lower bound for the global mining energy cost for a period of 10 years from to , taking into account changes in energy costs, improvements in hashing technologies and hashing activity. We estimate energy cost for Bitcoin mining using two methods: Brent Crude oil prices as a global standard and regional industrial electricity prices weighted by the share of hashing activity. Despite a billion-fold increase in hashing activity and a million-fold increase in total energy consumption, we find the cost relative to the volume of transactions has not increased nor decreased since This is consistent with the perspective that, in order to keep the Blockchain system secure from double spending attacks, the proof or work must cost a sizable fraction of the value that can be transferred through the network.

Miners collect transaction fees and are rewarded with new tokens for their Coinbase Wallet is an application that allows the user to connect to DeFi.

Recently, bitcoin became of the common payment methods in the world. Its popularity has significantly grown in the last few years and the reason behind it is clearly the advantages over traditional payment methods. However, some things remain unclear, like for example where you can store bitcoins. The answer is simple.

Based on the U. Kirkland, M. Researchers adjusted for other medical reasons, such as a history of stroke or diabetes, that would contribute to their medical expenses. Although expenditures were higher for inpatient and outpatient care, over the course of the study period, the researchers observed a shift toward more cost in the outpatient setting than the inpatient setting, which may reflect a larger societal trend to try to bring care out of the hospital system and into locations that are more accessible to most patients, Kirkland said. National statistics from the hypertension guidelines estimate that 46 percent of U. Co-authors are Marc Heincelman, M.

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With a fairly benign protocol that only affected people in Switzerland, the powers that be infected some of the most respected wallets in the space. But it was. On the AOPP official site , they define their product as:. Even though several wallets implemented the protocol, it was Trezor who caught most of the flak. The company even tried to use it for advertising:. Because hardware wallets are supposed to be sovereign.

Some messages should then appear as your program connects to the Bitcoin network and downloads the blockchain. The first time the program is run, this may take a while:. After the blockchain has finished downloading, you can test the hello- money program and send it some tiny sum from your favorite wallet app. Simply send 0.

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