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The DESTRESS project, funded by the Horizon programme of the European Commission, aimed to demonstrate soft stimulation treatments of geothermal reservoirs, expand knowledge, and provide solutions for more economical, sustainable, and environmental exploitation of underground heat. The project succeeded in delivering good practice for treatments which may be useful in designing future regulatory frameworks for geothermal stimulation.
Geothermal heat offers a renewable source for heat and energy production. As the project comes to an end, the website will not be updated anymore. However, it remains available and provides access to all best-practice reports , scientific publications , deliverables , information materials , newsletters and much more. The onsite operations have just been successfully completed and the obtained results are being evaluated in detail at the German Research Centre in Potsdam and the Technical University in Delft , the Netherlands.
Despite the local effort of conducting the heating plant effective functioning, several handicaps have been observed along the operational process of reinjecting formation water into the natural underground reservoir.
Aware of the observed operational constraints, the scientists, in collaboration with Hungarian companies, performed well integrity and injection tests on-site to analyse and evaluate the actual well conditions and propose further technological applications that could lead to carry on the heating plant. A workover rig was located on site in late January to perform well logging measurements and well integrity tests.
The operations campaign started measuring the well's inner sizes to validate its free passageway for upcoming downhole tools. Once the well gauges sizes were verified, then it was cleaned and circulated with bottom hole assemblies and environmentally friendly fluids. After conditioning the well logging downhole measurements, hydraulic test was performed to collect information of well integrity and injection parameters through the well screen sections.
The results from well logging data show that the wellbore is accessible to the bottom true vertical depth, near 2 km, which is an essential downhole feature for further operations. The logging data delivered up to date also displays no signs of aggressive corrosion damage in the downhole piping system called casing. The temperature and neutron logging data suggest that the filters or screens in the deeper well section located at the reservoir's face can work as pathways or channels for fluids injection.
Complementary to well logging measurements, a set of hydraulic tests were conducted to verify the saleability of the casing-cement interface. The positive results point to the premise that no damaged interface prevails in the well. After testing the well conditions hydraulically and evaluating the equipment's reliability, a cold brine injection test was performed to evaluate the reservoir admission and temperature cooling reaction over time.
The well logging and hydraulic testing operations were successful in terms of confirming the well integrity, unplugged screens pathways and formation admission parameters. The premier evaluation of the combined injection tests corroborates low formation injectivity values which adduce that upcoming stimulations procedures will be advisable to improve the reservoir injectivity performance.
The downhole measurements have generated large amounts of data and new information which are now being analysed. The analysis and results will be decisive contributions for supplementary stimulation action plans. A well doublet and the necessary surface technology with several heating centres were implemented and set into operation.
Despite various efforts, it was not possible to achieve a sustainable reinjection of the cooled down thermal water. In the first step, operational work started at the end of January and is expected to last about two weeks. A drilling rig will be mobilized at the site, and the necessary infrastructure will be set up. Downhole measurements and special tests shall provide information about the condition of the well and the integrity of its casings.
The precise knowledge of the actual state is prerequisite for reliable operation in the further work program. Furthermore, the company Vabeko Kft. The German Research Center for Geosciences GFZ is providing the professional expertise and will evaluate the results for further proceeding. There will be more information at a later stage.
The multi-stage stimulation concept provides for the formation of a permeable reservoir in the crystalline basement at a depth of 4 to 5 kilometres required for electricity production by means of targeted water injections.
The report includes a summary of each scientific work package as well as a timeline showing important DESTRESS events, milestones reached, site visits and much more. In addition, all best practice reports compiled during the last four years are summarised and presented within the report.
On those two days, members of the DESTRESS project shared their main findings and international representatives of the geothermal community held insightful speeches which led to fruitful follow-up discussions between all participants. During the two-hour poster sessions on the second day, the discussions could be continued on a smaller scale.
Furthermore, they offered the opportunity to exchange experiences and talk about the research carried out in various fields related to geothermal energy. In total, 18 posters were presented and discussed in three different thematic sessions. Did you miss the poster sessions? For those who were not able to join the poster sessions and the following lesson learnt sessions: you find the key points of the first and second session summarised here:. The stimulation conducted in December , was designed for improving the injectivity index of the well GPK-4, drilled in a deep, fractured granite reservoir.
The aim was to dissolve hydrothermal minerals filling the natural fractures such as carbonates and silicates. The acids had been previously tested in a lab on hydrothermally altered granite samples. This chemical stimulation was performed during geothermal exploitation of the power plant for the first time.
So, the plant was continuously producing electricity from geothermal energy during five days of operations. Before conducting the soft chemical stimulation of the injection well GPK-4, various aspects of environmental and hydraulic monitoring were recorded from the concept to the operation phase:. In parallel, the well injectivity index was evaluated based on recorded hydraulic parameters before and after the operation.
It varied between 0. So far, no significant impact of the chemical stimulation of GPK-4 can be observed. Many reasons could explain the poor efficiency of the acid job. Indeed, two hydraulic and three chemical stimulations were done in GPK-4 after the drilling operations.
Those past operations had probably already improved the near-wellbore permeability of the well. Consequently, the recent chemical stimulation could only have a limited effect on the already near well-stimulated zones. Moreover, the near-wellbore targeted by the chemical stimulation is maybe not the limiting parameter of GPK-4 injectivity. The low reservoir permeability could explain the poor efficiency of the chemical treatment, as the radius of acid reaction is too small to enhance far field reservoir permeability.
Other explanations may arise from chemical stimulation induced fines transport or partial pathways collapse. Both processes can also reduce previously increased permeability. Two small micro-seismic events were detected one day after the stimulation. However, there is no evidence that those two events are directly related to the soft chemical stimulation, according to the observation of seismic rates such as peak ground velocity PGV and magnitude.
However, they might have been induced by the stop and the restart of the injection well, which was part of the stimulation procedure or even just related to the injection itself.
This chemical stimulation was soft and done safely with no injured neither damage, by using the best practices developed in the frame of the DESTRESS project, such as risk assessment and management. It covers the full spectrum of geothermal energy research and provides a holistic overview of the key priorities for further development and investment in these technologies. These new stimulation methods would enable more efficient and sustainable use of geothermal energy while preventing induced seismic events and pollution of groundwater reservoirs.
Hence, adopting the RRI principle makes it necessary to also incorporate environmental and societal viewpoints when shaping research and innovation. This raises the question on how to best include different perspectives of various stakeholders?
Find an answers in our latest best practice report. In an interactive poster session, important contributions were discussed and particularly insightful presentations awarded. You can find the winning posters here:. A variety of presentation formats including scientific publications and a booklet will be made available to allow interested stakeholders access to all DESTRESS results. WP5's stimulation treatment in order to demonstrate cyclic soft stimulation is now ready to start in the well RV in Geldinganes near Reykjavik, Iceland.
The stimulation begins with temperature and caliper logs followed by a borehole televiewer for inspection of potential intervals to set the packers since the proposed stimulation treatment includes zonal isolation of reservoirs sections followed by a multi-stage stimulation. The network is operated by ISOR. In total, it is planned to stimulate 3 stages from the bottom of the well ca. Each stimulation treatment is scheduled for approx.
In the end, an airlift test is scheduled to quantify the success of the whole stimulation campaign. It discusses Harmonic Pulse Testing HPT that aims to determine well and formation parameters such as wellbore storage, skin, permeability, and boundaries within the investigated volume. This makes it an ideal monitoring tool. Find out more about HPT in the article. The international commission, which analyzed the magnitude 5. After having delivered a detailed report at hand of the South Korean government, the commission published a comprehensive summary in Science including lessons learned.
Access the commission report. On 20 March , the independent expert commission will release its report concerning the Pohang earthquake and its potential link to the nearby geothermal project.
The event of magnitude 5. This treatment did not induce any seismic activity larger than magnitude 2. The project collected important data and has been given access to further information thanks to the partnership with the local site owner, NexGEO. The results were made available to the expert commission. At the recent annual meeting in Strasbourg, further findings were discussed.
The focus laid on the potential for a triggered event. In case of triggered events, even small human activities can potentially accelerate the failure of a naturally pre-stressed fault inducing large earthquakes. However, especially, the two months gap between last injection activities and the damaging earthquake raises questions.
All elaborations will be published in a special issue in Geothermics. The event was hosted by the University of Strasbourg. The programme included a workshop on the M5. A short summary of this day will be made available in the upcoming weeks.
On the second and third day, the more than 50 project members presented achievements, current challenges, and discussed open questions. In the spotlight were further the upcoming activities at our new test sites in Island, Hungary, and the Netherlands.
Abstract submission opened on 1 December and is still open until 15 April Find more information here. Every year, between young scientists from various research fields such as geology, geochemistry, rock mechanics, geophysics and mechanical engineering come together to share knowledge and experience on this promising energy resource.
Swarm Robotic Behaviors and Current Applications
In swarm robotics multiple robots collectively solve problems by forming advantageous structures and behaviors similar to the ones observed in natural systems, such as swarms of bees, birds, or fish. However, the step to industrial applications has not yet been made successfully. Literature is light on real-world swarm applications that apply actual swarm algorithms. Typically, only parts of swarm algorithms are used which we refer to as basic swarm behaviors. In this paper we collect and categorize these behaviors into spatial organization, navigation, decision making, and miscellaneous. This taxonomy is then applied to categorize a number of existing swarm robotic applications from research and industrial domains. Along with the classification, we give a comprehensive overview of research platforms that can be used for testing and evaluating swarm behavior, systems that are already on the market, and projects that target a specific market.
Nuclear Polymer Explains the Stability, Instability, and Nonexistence of Nuclides
Current research interests of Dr. Gechev include: Plant Genomics, Reactive oxygen species as modulators of plant stress responses and programmed cell death, Molecular mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in Haberlea rhodopensis. In , Dr. Written by Dimitar Kirkovski. Food Chem Toxicol. In: Biotechnology of neglected and underutilized crops. In: Reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in higher plants. Staykov N. Rasul F. International Journal of Molecular Sciences.
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