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Mineral Resources of New Mexico

Environmental Evidence volume 8 , Article number: 9 Cite this article. Metrics details. Mining activities, including prospecting, exploration, construction, operation, maintenance, expansion, abandonment, decommissioning and repurposing of a mine can impact social and environmental systems in a range of positive and negative, and direct and indirect ways.

Mining can yield a range of benefits to societies, but it may also cause conflict, not least in relation to above-ground and sub-surface land use. Similarly, mining can alter environments, but remediation and mitigation can restore systems.

Boreal and Arctic regions are sensitive to impacts from development, both on social and environmental systems. Native ecosystems and aboriginal human communities are typically affected by multiple stressors, including climate change and pollution, for example.

We will search a suite of bibliographic databases, online search engines and organisational websites for relevant research literature using a tested search strategy. We will screen identified and retrieved articles at two distinct stages title and abstract, and full text according to a predetermined set of inclusion criteria, with consistency checks at each level to ensure criteria can be made operational.

We will then extract detailed information relating to causal linkages between actions or impacts and measured outcomes, along with descriptive information about the articles and studies and enter data into an interactive systematic map database.

We will visualise this database on an Evidence Atlas an interactive, cartographic map and identify knowledge gaps and clusters using Heat Maps cross-tabulations of important variables, such as mineral type and studied impacts.

We will identify good research practices that may support researchers in selecting the best study designs where these are clear in the evidence base. Mine exploration, construction, operation, and maintenance may result in land-use change, and may have associated negative impacts on environments, including deforestation, erosion, contamination and alteration of soil profiles, contamination of local streams and wetlands, and an increase in noise level, dust and emissions e.

Mine abandonment, decommissioning and repurposing may also result in similar significant environmental impacts, such as soil and water contamination [ 6 , 7 , 8 ]. Beyond the mines themselves, infrastructure built to support mining activities, such as roads, ports, railway tracks, and power lines, can affect migratory routes of animals and increase habitat fragmentation [ 9 , 10 ].

Mining can also have positive and negative impacts on humans and societies. Negative impacts include those on human health e. Mining is also known to affect traditional practices of Indigenous peoples living in nearby communities [ 13 ], and conflicts in land use are also often present, as are other social impacts including those related to public health and human wellbeing e.

In terms of positive impacts, mining is often a source of local employment and may contribute to local and regional economies [ 18 , 19 ]. Remediation of the potential environmental impacts, for example through water treatment and ecological restoration, can have positive net effects on environmental systems [ 20 ].

Mine abandonment, decommissioning and repurposing can also have both positive and negative social impacts. Examples of negative impacts include loss of jobs and local identities [ 21 ], while positive impact can include opportunities for new economic activities [ 22 ], e. Such measures must be considered and outlined in environmental and social impact assessments EIAs and SIAs that are conducted prior to major activities such as resource extraction [ 24 , 25 ].

Mitigation of negative environmental impacts in one system e. A wide range of technological engineering solutions have been implemented to treat contaminated waters e. Phytoremediation of contaminated land is also an area of active research [ 28 ]. Mitigation measures designed to alleviate the negative impacts of mining on social and environmental systems may not always be effective, particularly in the long-term and across systems, e.

Indeed, the measures may have unintentional adverse impacts on environments and societies. To date, little research appears to have been conducted into mitigation measure effectiveness, and we were unable to find any synthesis or overview of the systems-level effectiveness of metal mining mitigation measures. Boreal and Arctic regions are sensitive to impacts from mining and mining-related activities [ 29 , 30 ], both on social and environmental systems: these northern latitudes are often considered harsh and thus challenging for human activities and industrial development.

However, the Arctic is home to substantial mineral resources [ 31 , 32 ] and has been in focus for mining activities for several years, with a marked increase in the early 20th century and intensifying interest in exploration and exploitation in recent years to meet a growing global demand for metals Fig. As of , there were some mineral mines across Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, The Faroes, Norway including Svalbard , Sweden, Finland and Russia see Table 1 , with the top five minerals being gold, iron, copper, nickel and zinc [ 33 ].

Many topics relating to mining and its impacts on environmental and social systems are underrepresented in the literature as illustrated by the following example. The Sami people are a group of traditional people inhabiting a region spanning northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. Sami people are affected by a range of external pressures, one of which pertains to resource extraction and land rights, particularly in relation to nomadic reindeer herding.

However, there is almost no published research on the topic [ 34 ]. The literature on the environmental and social impacts of mining has grown in recent years, but despite its clear importance, there has been little synthesis of research knowledge pertaining to the social and environmental impacts of metal mining in Arctic and boreal regions. The absence of a consolidated knowledge base on the impacts of mining and the effectiveness of mitigation measures in Arctic and boreal regions is a significant knowledge gap in the face of the continued promotion of extractive industries.

There is thus an urgent need for approaches that can transparently and legitimately gather research evidence on the potential environmental and social impacts of mining and the impacts of associated mitigation measures in a rigorous manner.

The stakeholder group for this map includes representatives of organisations affected by the broader 3MK project knowledge mapping project or who have special interests in the project outcome.

We define stakeholders here as all individuals or organisations that might be affected by the systematic map work or its findings [ 35 , 36 ], and thus broadly includes researchers and the Working and Advisory Group for this project. Stakeholders were invited to a specific meeting held at Stockholm Environment Institute in September to help refine the scope, define the key elements of the review question, finalise a search strategy, and suggest sources of evidence, and also to subsequently provide comments on the structure of the protocol.

The broader 3MK project aims to develop a multiple evidence base methodology [ 37 ] combining systematic review approaches with documentation of Indigenous and local knowledge and to apply this approach in a study of the impacts of metal mining and impacts of mitigation measures. This systematic map aims to answer the question:. What research evidence exists on the impacts of metal mining and its mitigation measures on social and environmental systems in Arctic and boreal regions? Social, technological i.

Impacts direct and indirect, positive and negative associated with metal mining for gold, iron, copper, nickel, zinc, silver, molybdenum and lead or its mitigation measures. For quantitative research; the absence of metal mining or metal mining mitigation measures—either prior to an activity or in an independent, controlled location lacking such impacts. Additionally, alternative mining systems is a suitable comparator. For qualitative research; comparators are typically implicit, if present and will thus not be required.

Any and all outcomes observed in social and environmental systems described in the literature will be iteratively identified and catalogued. We will search bibliographic databases using a tested search string adapted to each database according to the necessary input syntax of each resource. The Boolean version of the search string that will be used in Web of Science Core Collections can be found in Additional file 2.

We will search across 17 bibliographic databases as show in Table 2. Bibliographic database searches will be performed in English only, since these databases catalogue research using English titles and abstracts. Searches for academic i. The search strings used to search for literature in Google Scholar are described in detail in Additional file 3.

Search results will be exported from Google Scholar using Publish or Perish [ 42 ], which allows the first results to be exported. These records will be added to the bibliographic database search results prior to duplicate removal.

In order to identify organisational grey literature, we will search for relevant evidence across the suite of organisational websites listed in Table 3. The search terms used will be based on the same terms used in the Google Scholar searches described above but will be adapted iteratively for each website depending on the relevance of the results obtained. In addition, we will hand search each website to locate and screen any articles found in publications or bibliography sections of the sites.

All search activities will be recorded and described in the systematic map report. Relevant reviews that are identified during screening will be reserved for assessment of potentially missed records.

Once screening is complete see below , we will screen the reference lists of these reviews and include relevant full texts in the systematic map database. We will also retain these relevant reviews in an additional systematic map database of review articles. A set of 41 studies known to be relevant have been provided by the Advisory Team and Working Group review team ; the benchmark list see Additional file 4.

During scoping and development of the search string, the bibliographic database search results will be checked to ascertain whether any of these studies were not found. For any cases where articles on the benchmark list are missed by the draft search string, we will examine why these studies may have been missed and adapt the search string accordingly.

We will perform a search update immediately prior to completion of the systematic map database i. The search strategy for bibliographic databases will be repeated using the same search string, restricting searches to the time period after the original searches were performed. New search results will be processed in the same way as original search results.

Following searching, we will combine results in a review management platform e. EPPI-Reviewer and duplicates will be removed using a combination of automated removal and manual screening. We will screen records at three levels: title, abstract and full text. Screening will be performed using a review management platform e. Refinements of the inclusion criteria will be made in liaison with the entire review team where necessary. Only when a kappa score of greater than 0.

Consistency checking will be repeated until a score of greater than 0. The following inclusion criteria will be used to assess relevance of studies identified through searching. All inclusion criteria will be used at full text screening, but we believe that data type and comparator are unlikely to be useful at title and abstract screening, since this information is often not well-reported in titles or abstracts.

We will include social, technological and environmental systems in Arctic and boreal regions based on political boundaries as follows this encompasses various definitions of boreal zones, rather than any one specific definition for comprehensiveness and ease of understanding : Canada, USA Alaska , Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway including Svalbard , Sweden, Finland, and Russia.

We will include all impacts positive, negative, direct and indirect associated with any aspect of metal mining and its mitigation measures. We will include research pertaining to all stages of mining, from prospecting onwards as follows: prospecting, exploration, construction, operation, maintenance, expansion, abandonment, decommissioning, reopening and repurposing. Eligible mines will include those of gold, iron, copper, nickel, zinc, silver, molybdenum and lead.

Any and all outcomes i. We will include both primary empirical research and secondary research reviews will be catalogued in a separate database. Modelling studies and commentaries will not be included.

For all articles excluded at title and abstract or full text levels, reasons for exclusion will be provided in the form of one or more a priori exclusion criteria as follows:. We will attempt to retrieve full texts of relevant abstracts using Stockholm University and Carleton University library subscriptions.

Where full texts cannot be readily retrieved this way or via associated library inter-loan networks , we will make use of institutional access provided to our Advisory Team members, including: University College London, KTH, University of Lapland, and SLU.

This systematic map will not involve an assessment of study validity an optional part of systematic maps , although some extracted meta-data and coding will relate to internal validity. None of the review team has authored or worked on research within this field prior to starting this project, but members of the Advisory Team and project Working Group will be prevented from providing advice or comments relating specifically to research papers to which they may have contributed.

We will extract and code a range of variables, outlined in Table 4. All meta-data and coding will be included in a detailed systematic map database, with each line representing one study-location i. Meta-data extraction and coding will be performed by multiple reviewers following consistency checking on an initial coding of subset of between 10 and 15 full texts, discussing all disagreements.

The remaining full texts will then be coded. If resources allow we may contact authors by email with requests for missing information. We will narratively synthesise the relevant evidence base in our systematic map using descriptive plots and tables showing the number of studies identified across the variables described above.

A global-scale data set of mining areas

Official websites use. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. This is a best prospect industry sector for this country. Includes a market overview and trade data. The predominant minerals include platinum, chrome, gold, coal, and diamonds.

Central Zonal Offices of the Mining Cadastre Office. by any enactment for the transfer of external currency outof Nigeria, best practices. ' ;jI.

Electricity needed to mine bitcoin is more than used by 'entire countries'

Copper mining in Zambia - history and future. Sikamo I , II ; A. Mwanza I ; C. Mweemba I. The Zambian copper mining industry as we know it today had its genesis in the s. Consistent private sector-driven investment in the industry over a period of over 50 years in exploration, mine development and operation, development of minerals processing facilities, building of infrastructure for pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical processing, with attendant support facilities, including building of whole new towns, resulted in copper production rising to a peak of t in , providingover 62 direct jobs. The industry was nationalized in and remained in government hands for just over 24 years. During this period, the industry experienced a serious decline in production levels, reaching the lowest level in the year when production was t.

Minerals and sustainable development

best coin to mine minerals org

Abstract: Do Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies play a useful social role, or do they represent a social waste? Bitcoin is a decentralized recordkeeping system, with updating of the record of transactions in the blockchain. Potentially, Bitcoin could be useful if it is widely used as a means of payment or as a safe-haven asset. But, given its properties, it is an inefficient and poorly designed means of payment and probably cannot survive as a safe haven asset. Bitcoin could encourage crime, which is a further social cost, but fortunately it may not serve criminals well either.

Bitcoin mining is the process by which new bitcoins are entered into circulation. It is also the way the network confirms new transactions and is a critical component of the blockchain ledger's maintenance and development.

Africa could be the next frontier for cryptocurrency

A nonprofit, independent media organization dedicated to telling stories of climate solutions and a just future. As more miners join the network — lured by the skyrocketing value of the bitcoin they receive in exchange for their work — the puzzles get harder, requiring ever greater amounts of processing power, and thus electricity, to solve. Bitcoin mining is now estimated to gobble up more electricity than many entire countries. The energy used by the Bitcoin network in a single year could power all the tea kettles in the United Kingdom for over three decades. Proponents of Bitcoin would have you believe that many or even most mining operations are in far-flung locations using renewable energy that otherwise would have gone to waste. Jack Dorsey and Elon Musk, whose respective companies Square and Tesla have invested heavily in Bitcoin, claim the cryptocurrency will actually hurry the green energy transition by steering investment into renewables.

Mining Courses

Help us translate the latest version. To better understand this page, we recommend you first read up on transactions , blocks and proof-of-work. Mining is the process of creating a block of transactions to be added to the Ethereum blockchain. Ethereum, like Bitcoin, currently uses a proof-of-work PoW consensus mechanism. Mining is the lifeblood of proof-of-work.

Mining in all its phases remained the great engine of the Colorado economy Silver Purchase Act and the restoration of the gold standard of currency.

Can you name 30 everyday things that mining makes possible?

Settlers in North Carolina and Georgia pan for gold in streams and dig just below the surface. Later in the s, technology improves and the first hard rock mine is opened in North Carolina to mine gold from its source. Silver and copper are added to smelted gold to meet fineness requirements.

What are the main methods of mining?

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By Matthew Sparkes. Bitcoin is a digital currency which operates free of any central control or the oversight of banks or governments. Instead it relies on peer-to-peer software and cryptography. A public ledger records all bitcoin transactions and copies are held on servers around the world.

The Bitcoin network is burning a large amount of energy for mining. In this paper, we estimate the lower bound for the global mining energy cost for a period of 10 years from to , taking into account changes in energy costs, improvements in hashing technologies and hashing activity.

How Does Bitcoin Mining Work?

If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. To log in and use all the features of Khan Academy, please enable JavaScript in your browser. Donate Login Sign up Search for courses, skills, and videos. Economics Finance and capital markets Money, banking and central banks Bitcoin. Bitcoin: What is it? Bitcoin: Cryptographic hash functions.

For more than years, Nevada mining has produced minerals that are key to an innovative and advanced society. Today, more than 20 minerals are mined in the Silver State. These minerals are found in thousands of items we use every day.

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