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Blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies could remake global health financing and usher in an era global health equity and universal health coverage. We outline and provide examples for at least four important ways in which this potential disruption of traditional global health funding mechanisms could occur: universal access to financing through direct transactions without third parties; novel new multilateral financing mechanisms; increased security and reduced fraud and corruption; and the opportunity for open markets for healthcare data that drive discovery and innovation. We see these issues as a paramount to the delivery of healthcare worldwide and relevant for payers and providers of healthcare at state, national and global levels; for government and non-governmental organisations; and for global aid organisations, including the WHO, International Monetary Fund and World Bank Group. Cryptocurrencies could enable universal access to financing mechanisms by removing third-party financial intermediaries and offering transparent, secure and accountable means for global health financing. Blockchain technology could usher in a new era of multilateral financing mechanisms, for example, through the use of smart contracts for health system development.
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- Humanistic futures of learning: perspectives from UNESCO Chairs and UNITWIN Networks
- World's largest hosting provider for green cryptocurrency mining
- Beset by legal battles, Brazil asbestos town eyes a safer future
- gold or silver for inflation
- ‘Great mining migration’: Power-hungry Bitcoin leaves China
- Copper Facts
- The Role of Critical Minerals in Clean Energy Transitions
- The Mining Law of 1872: Digging a Little Deeper
- Mining productivity and the fourth industrial revolution
- This power plant stopped burning fossil fuels. Then Bitcoin came along.
Humanistic futures of learning: perspectives from UNESCO Chairs and UNITWIN Networks
The present license applies exclusively to the text content of the publication. For use of any other material i. The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors; they are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization. In the area of education, this includes leading the global debate on the futures of education and learning.
This publication is a contribution to this role, in particular through the Futures of Education initiative that aims to generate an agenda for global debate and action on the futures of education, learning and knowledge in a world of increasing complexity, uncertainty and precarity.
Acknowledging that all voices must be heard in order to shape and transform education, the initiative is based on a broad and open process of engagement involving a range of stakeholders at global, regional and local levels.
Comprising over institutions and affiliates, the global network is an essential resource for the generation and mobilization of interdisciplinary knowledge. The think pieces by over one hundred authors from 65 institutions presented in this publication were selected from the numerous submissions received in response to the call for contributions to the Futures of Education initiative.
The Commission is mandated to steer the debate and lead the development of a global report on the futures of education to serve as a platform for policy debate, research and action for the years to come. This is in the spirit of previous reports published at key historical junctures of societal transformation, including Learning to Be: the world of education today and tomorrow , Learning: The treasure within , and, more recently, Rethinking Education: Towards a global common good?
A humanistic approach to education and development is the common thread that weaves together the diversity of contributions into a rich tapestry on learning. The approach is grounded in a vision of development that is economically inclusive, socially just and environmentally sustainable.
A vision that acknowledges the diversity of knowledge systems, worldviews and conceptions of well-being, while reaffirming a common core of universally shared values. It is a vision that promotes an integrated approach to learning, acknowledging the multiple personal, social, civic and economic purposes of education. The collection presented in this publication provide fresh multidisciplinary insights for a re-purposing of education that inspire hope for the future as we address increasingly complex development challenges and as we strive to transform the future.
Foreword UNESCO would sincerely like to thank all those who enthusiastically responded to the call for think pieces on the futures of education. The pieces featured in this publication represent only a fraction of those submitted.
It is only by leveraging our collective intelligence that we can repurpose education and learning for alternative futures of humanity and the planet. This publication is one contribution in this direction. Many of them transcended disciplinary specializations and geographic borders to prepare original think pieces. Their perspectives and insights are invaluable to advancing the collective thinking on how education, knowledge and learning can shape the future of humanity and the planet.
The analysis of the contributions was led by Noah Webster Sobe. Maya Prince coordinated the overall publication project, including both the selection and peer review process, and Aida Alhabshi supported the production process. Namreen Akhter Syed provided support with editing and overall coordination of the publication and Kyeonghun Joo assisted with the monitoring of submissions.
This project would not have been possible without their support. Culture and the environment: Harnessing customs and knowledge for planetary survival. Responsible citizenship: Cultivating a generation at peace with itself and the Earth. Rethinking learning systems: Strengthened public education and integrated learning networks.
Science, technology and innovation: Building the capacity to aspire in a digital era. Knowledge and transformation: Setting the stage for the futures of education. Persistent inequalities, social fragmentation and political extremism have driven many societies to the brink of crisis.
Although advances in digital communication, artificial intelligence and biotechnology harbour great potential, they also raise serious ethical and governance concerns — especially as promises of innovation and technological change have an uneven record of contributing positively to human prosperity.
In a world defined by increasing complexity, uncertainty and precarity, we must urgently re-examine and reimagine how knowledge and learning can best contribute to the global common good. The network was invited to prepare think pieces in any of the six United Nations official languages to help advance a shared vision for the future. This first publication is organized into five sections, each containing eight to twelve independent think pieces that address important dimensions critical to re-purposing education for the future.
It calls for greater focus on the role of culture in strengthening social and environmental sustainability; the values and attitudes needed to shape future generations; the need for robust public education and alternative learning spaces; human creativity and capability in a digital era; and the role of higher education, research and innovation in generating knowledge to transform the world.
Culture and the environment: Harnessing customs and knowledge for planetary survival The think pieces in this section foresee a possible future with planetary stability enabled through the mobilization of education, diversity of knowledge, customs and culture.
They posit that embedding a deep attachment to landscapes and tangible heritage instills a sense of stewardship for the world. This stems from an understanding that heritage is a manifestation of transformation and survival despite changing times. The authors suggest that the study, preservation and appreciation of diverse languages, knowledge and customs enrich our collective consciousness through an understanding of the relations between past, present and future societies.
This section envisions the evolving role of education to include sustainability studies as a means of driving planetary survival. This awareness leads to a deeper affinity to land, heritage and culture, and, ultimately, to greater environmental stability. Responsible citizenship: Cultivating a generation at peace with itself and the Earth This section recognizes the potential of education as a socialising process to build equitable and sustainable societies.
A particular emphasis is placed on the integration of philosophy, human rights, visual learning, socio-emotional competencies, media literacy and the humanities in school curricula — in particular in subject areas that focus predominantly on acquiring scientific knowledge.
It also suggests that the practice of storytelling can encourage a model of hybrid thinking that takes into account local challenges and their global impacts. Interdisciplinary knowledge is introduced as key to inclusivity and social justice.
The authors foresee the role of education across all levels as a means to create a shared global future through the inclusion of a visioning component in teaching and learning about societies. This approach aims to foster a future generation that is conscious of the vital need for planetary sustainability and focused on solving global challenges, including food shortage and planetary health.
Rethinking learning systems: Strengthened public education and integrated learning networks This section calls on the need to rethink learning systems.
It touches on the blurring boundaries between public and private education. It also emphasizes the need to create cross-cutting digital and physical spaces that facilitate the sharing of knowledge. Such collaborative learning spaces are proposed as a means to explore math and art education while fostering collective imagination.
Authors in this section call for a democratization of knowledge through greater inclusivity in and accessibility to higher education as well as to make common the use and availability of open educational resources. It is assumed that these new internationalized learning systems will cultivate a culture of responsible citizenship and equity that legitimizes different ways of knowing — particularly those that lie outside of traditional Western paradigms. Science, technology and innovation: Building the capacity to aspire in a digital era The pieces in this section acknowledge the changing facets of teaching, learning and knowledge production in a future characterized by increasingly developed artificial intelligence technology.
While many claim that artificial intelligence can play a significant role in solving the global learning crisis, they stress that its governance should incorporate the principles of humanistic learning in scientific study. The think pieces highlight new digital competencies and media literacies and call for a gender transformative approach to the digitization and utilization of AI.
Higher education reform is broadly seen as a means of preparing learners to engage meaningfully in this change. There is also a call to unlock digital barriers through open educational resources to enable global online learning and facilitate education for all. Knowledge and transformation: Setting the stage for the futures of education This section sets the stage to envision the futures of education through transforming how we view education and the role of learning institutions.
The pieces touch on the transformation of universities, the benefits of fostering transdisciplinary teaching and encouraging innovation, as well as of stimulating creative imagination. The section also explores how the teachings of futures literacy can prepare learners to become more open and ready to face an unknown future.
There is a call to reimagine the possibilities of vocational education and training to fulfill human needs and reach beyond industrial work and the provision of income.
The pieces also highlight the importance of lifelong counselling to support people in their careers and personal endeavours so they can become constructive agents of their own reality.
Finally, it calls for co-creating the future by shifting inter-generational relations, and for the revamping of higher education to account for life-long learning opportunities to change global demographic patterns, in particular the increased longevity of humans. One think piece specifically calls on UNESCO to spearhead and guide this collective imagination by encouraging knowledge democracy.
Culture and the environment Harnessing customs and knowledge for planetary survival 1. The author foresees that such an education will result in communities of knowledge that will create an affinity to our landscape and shared values for a more sustainable planet.
Scientific research has produced some of the most useful hypotheses on humans and the universe that support the restructuring of our beliefs and the building of a new paradigm of human development. For instance, twentieth century physics and chemistry as well as more recent brain studies have helped us extrapolate some useful ideas to restructure how we situate ourselves in the world and inform our daily actions. Twentieth century physics has shown us that space and time are not distinct entities, and that bodies are at once matter, waves and energy.
Thus, in this sense, reality is only an interaction, an exchange of information, and it is probable not deterministic. The study of particles helps us see the world as a continual and restless proliferate of entities that appear and disappear, and that combine together with infinity — a world in continuous evolution Rovelli, It follows the idea that the brain can control actions that occur throughout the body and the idea that the chemistry that occurs within an organism forms the biological basis for emotions.
Thus, chemistry is related to our individual perception of the world and to our way of being in the world. Our view of the world and our physiology are therefore connected as the external world and the inner world lives in continuous reciprocal reference Pert, Culture and the environment: Harnessing customs and knowledge for planetary survival 17 Neuroscience hypothesizes that the particular lateralized architecture of the human brain is the result of an evolutionary thrust.
Research in neuroscience tells us that the two specialized hemispheres of the brain are connected by the corpus callosum, allowing for communication between both sides, which enables the emergence of new capacities and improvement of our capacity for decision-making. To face the great global challenges of our time — especially, given the complexity and rapidity of these changes — we can deepen our knowledge of scientific research and let these ideas inform our daily perception of reality.
In doing so, we grasp the idea that there is both impermanence and interdependence; information exchange; reality is not deterministic but probabilistic; the external world and the inner world are continuous mirroring each other; and that our brain is plastic and its architecture can evolve. Incorporating philosophy and science into education To help us expand our understanding of the many ways we could perceive the world, one strategy could be scientific dissemination through philosophical counseling in schools and university programmes; in professional and work-related programmes; and in non-formal and informal educational settings.
We need tools to help us frame phenomena and our choices in a broad view. In a more recent shift, science has begun to restructure its view and accept the idea that the observer can reside within the observed field, and that two can mutually influence each other. Human beings and our relationship with nature For a radical reconfiguration of our paradigms, it is necessary to confront the complexity of our time with a holistic perspective and to find creative solutions to achieve sustainable development.
Paoletti and Dotan Ben Soussan, In our time, the skills to manage change are largely strategic and entails mental flexibility and emotional balance. To guide change, we need awareness, perception of ourselves and of the whole — in essence, creativity. Fortunately, the orientation we need for the evolution of humanity to live in harmony with the planet that hosts us has been precisely defined by the sustainable development goals of the Agenda.
The meditative practices required to gain this awareness is contained in the heritage of certain cultures in particular, some of which are not completely foreign to the Western world. In Greek and then Roman antiquity, the essential task of philosophy was not to construct or expose a conceptual system, rather the different philosophical schools transferred systems of practices to work on themselves and bring about their own transformation — practices that involved not only thought but also imagination, sensitivity and will Hadot, ; Mortari, Today, meditative practices can serve as a tool in formal educational systems to strengthen the necessary skills to root the individual in the journey to navigate emotions, perceptions and understanding of the global challenges as a whole as well as awareness of the choices available for oneself and for the whole.
We know that we have neuroplastic brains that can evolve to face the challenges of our time. The landscape as an experience of nature can be used to shift education in this direction. The landscape refers to the relationship of humans with nature, to our point of view on nature and our feelings towards it.
In this sense, the experience of the landscape is also an experience of oneself. In this environment, an immersive experience in the landscape and in direct contact with natural forces can play an educational role, not only to develop an ecological conscience, but also as a practice of sensory perception and listening to oneself in relation to the whole of which we are a part. Neuroscientific research teaches us that both our auditory and visual systems have an innate preference for natural sounds and landscapes.
In addition, aesthetic pleasure probably plays a role in helping us process information about the world as an evolutionary advantage Gazzaniga, With globalization, every place can be reached and displayed for our appraisal.
World's largest hosting provider for green cryptocurrency mining
A significant driver behind this sudden drop was news that China had begun a sweeping crackdown on the cryptocurrency industry, due to concerns about financial risk and excessive energy consumption. Before the clampdown, China accounted for two-thirds of Bitcoin mining worldwide. In the months since, mining companies have been quick to move their operations overseas. Bitcoin is a decentralised digital currency, meaning that each time money is sent or received, the transaction is kept on a public record, rather than with a bank. To verify transactions, miners connect computers to the network and use them to solve incredibly complex, randomly generated mathematical puzzles. The Bitcoin network would rank 32 nd in the world by annual electricity consumption if it were a country. The more processing power you can muster, the more often you will be first to solve the puzzle and earn the Bitcoin.
Beset by legal battles, Brazil asbestos town eyes a safer future
Interest in cryptocurrency, a form of digital currency, is growing steadily in Africa. Some economists say it is a disruptive innovation that will blossom on the continent. Cryptocurrency is not bound by geography because it is internet based; its transactions are stored in a database called blockchain, which is a group of connected computers that record transactions in a ledger in real time. Created in by a person or people with the alias Satoshi Nakamoto, investors hope Bitcoin becomes the new mode of financial transaction in the digital age. It is no surprise that some of these countries are among the main Bitcoin economies in Africa. The BBC adds that cryptocurrency is gaining ground in Uganda. There will be million mobile phone subscribers in Africa by , according to the GSM Association, which represents the interests of mobile operators globally. That means more Africans will have the tools to plug into the cryptocurrency ecosystem, says Mr.
gold or silver for inflation
After all, the factory -- which produces an alloy of iron and silicon for the boom-and-bust steel industry -- has cut output and laid off employees during tough times over the decades, only to fire up idled furnaces and call workers back after a few months. So for some employees of the plant owned by Ukrainian tycoon Ihor Kolomoyskiy and his business partner Hennadiy Boholyubov, it came as a shock when union leaders at CCMA informed them last month that most of the remaining workers would be laid off in December -- even as the ferroalloy market shows signs of rebounding from a sharp COVID slump. The clouded future of CCMA and its workers is another twist in the more than year-old story of Kolomoyskiy's business activities in the United States, where he and Boholyubov built a steel business worth hundreds of millions of dollars but lost it by Word of the additional layoffs came months after the U. Justice Department accused Kolomoyskiy and Boholyubov of purchasing U.
‘Great mining migration’: Power-hungry Bitcoin leaves China
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, lode , vein , seam , reef , or placer deposit. Exploitation of these deposits for raw material is based on the economic viability of investing in the equipment, labor, and energy required to extract, refine and transport the materials found at the mine to manufacturers who can use the material. Ores recovered by mining include metals , coal , oil shale , gemstones , limestone , chalk , dimension stone , rock salt , potash , gravel , and clay. Mining is required to obtain most materials that cannot be grown through agricultural processes , or feasibly created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum , natural gas , or even water.
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The Role of Critical Minerals in Clean Energy Transitions
You might be using an unsupported or outdated browser. To get the best possible experience please use the latest version of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, or Microsoft Edge to view this website. Ethereum is often referred to as the second most popular cryptocurrency, after Bitcoin.
The Mining Law of 1872: Digging a Little Deeper
Rating Criteria explains our forward-looking ratings approach. Criteria reports identify rating drivers and assumptions, and highlight the scope and limitations of our analysis. Master Criteria describe the basic foundation for our ratings within a sector. Fitch Ratings provides forward-looking credit opinions, as indicated by its ratings, that reflect its expectations of credit behavior over a range of scenarios. Fitch may also initiate unsolicited rating coverage where sufficient public information is available to provide insight to subscribers and the public debt market. The risk of inflation broadening is making central banks nervous.
Mining productivity and the fourth industrial revolution
This power plant stopped burning fossil fuels. Then Bitcoin came along.
A possible new future alternative to land mining Overview Asteroids are a class of small rocky and metallic bodies orbiting the sun. Asteroid composition varies widely, from volatile-rich bodies to metallic bodies with high concentrations of rare metals such as gold, silver, and platinum in addition to more common elements such as iron and nickel. Platinum-rich asteroids may contain grades of up to grams per ton, times higher than open pit platinum mines in South Africa Sonter, These ore grades mean that one meter-wide platinum-rich asteroid could contain nearly times the annual global platinum output, or 1.