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Devasena et. Anitha et. Swetha Reddy et. Swarnalatha et. Sandhya Rani et. Roopa et.

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The present license applies exclusively to the text content of the publication. For the use of any material not clearly identified as belonging to UNESCO, prior permission shall be requested from the copyright owner.

The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

Similarly, boundaries and names shown and the designation used on the maps do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors; they are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization. The contents were contributed by the UN-Water Members and Partners, and others on the title pages of the chapters therein.

WWAP provided the opportunity for individuals to be listed as authors and contributors or to be acknowledged in this publication. WWAP is not responsible for any omissions in this regard. Section 8. Cover artwork by Davide Bonazzi. Printed in France. There is no easy answer to this deceptively simple question. On the one hand, water is infinitely valuable — without it, life would not exist.

On the other, water is taken for granted — it is wasted every single day. According to economic theory, the value of a good is determined by scarcity — the gap between limited resources and unlimited needs.

But fresh water is in fact scarce, and becoming scarcer. Over 2 billion people already live in areas subject to water stress. Some 3. More importantly, economic theory is not the only way of determining worth. Cultural values are equally, if not more, significant.

Many indigenous peoples, for example, accord special status to water and waterways. The Ganges and Yamuna Rivers, in India, are also considered living entities with the same rights as human beings. For these groups, bodies of water are like loved ones, and therefore priceless. How, then, should we value water?

The World Water Development Report focuses on this crucial issue. It assesses the ways water in which is valued across different sectors and identifies how this process can be improved, with a view to better evaluating what water is worth to our societies.

As the Report underlines, there are few standardized approaches to the valuation of water, whether within or between sectors.

Moreover, these approaches do not always acknowledge the perspectives of different belief systems, cultures, genders and scientific disciplines. Only by incorporating these viewpoints can we achieve more sustainable, inclusive, gender-responsive and equitable decision-making processes — and take a step towards attaining Sustainable Development Goal 6, clean water and sanitation for all.

I wish to thank all those who participated in this common endeavour, especially the UN-Water family for its close and continued collaboration. This publication recognises that water is not a question of development, but also a basic human right.

By working together, we can identify solutions to help us on our way to a sustainable and prosperous world, without leaving anyone behind. Because the fate of humans and water is inextricably linked. Houngbo Achieving the Agenda for Sustainable Development is a moral imperative. We owe it to our children and to future generations.

There is no life on earth without water. Sustainable Development Goal 6 SDG 6 calls for the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. Unless we reach SDG6, we risk failing to attain many of the other Sustainable Development Goals, including those related to poverty reduction, food and nutrition, human health, gender equality, energy, economic growth, sustainable cities and the environment.

The devasting COVID pandemic reminds us of the importance of access to water, sanitation and hygiene facilities, and that far too many people are still without them. There is enough water for all provided we use and manage it efficiently. We invest too little, and ineffectively. We use too much water, creating scarcities.

Quality is suffering and so is the environment. The value we place on water varies, depending upon who is using it, and why. Value can be a guide to what our goals should be, what actions are needed, and where we should invest. The time has come for stakeholders to identify, articulate and share perspectives of the values of water. This report explains various approaches to valuing water for environmental considerations, water-related infrastructure, drinking water, sanitation and hygiene.

It looks at valuation issues in food and agriculture, business, industry, energy and financing. And it highlights the perspectives of different value systems and cultures, and associated social and gender-based considerations.

I am confident that the report will facilitate a better appreciation of the values of water and accelerate our progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals.

But what does this really mean? Can the value of water be measured? And if so, how? In other words, what is water worth — and to whom? While these questions may appear clear and simple enough, the answers are anything but. Rather, water holds a myriad of values that can differ greatly based on where the water is located, its level of abundance or scarcity, its quality, and its availability.

Its values also depend upon the purpose it is used for and the benefits generated by these uses. Some values can be quantified and even monetized, such as when water is used as an input in specific industrial processes or for irrigated agriculture, and expressed as a unit of production or profit per volume used. For example, while food security is of vital importance to any household, community or nation, the value of water for food security is rarely if ever factored in when assessing the value of water for agriculture.

The values of water to human well-being extend well beyond its role in supporting direct physical life-sustaining functions or economies, and include mental health, spiritual well-being, emotional balance and happiness. The often-intangible nature of these sociocultural values attributed to water regularly defies any attempt at quantification, but they can nevertheless be regarded amongst the highest values. Even when water from the same source is used for the same purpose under the same circumstances, its value can be perceived differently from one user to the next.

Personal and sociocultural differences often lay at the root of this, with variables such as gender, age, race, class, status, or even belief, playing a determining role.

As the eighth in a series of annual, thematic reports, the edition of the United Nations World Water Development Report WWDR examines the value of water across a broad range of water-related perspectives, ranging from water resources, infrastructure, and supply and sanitation services, through to economic uses and cultural values.

It offers insights in the different methods for valuing water and provides guidance in how to use them. The report presents a number of methodologies and approaches to valuing water across different use sectors and shows how these tools have been applied to improve water management. It also describes how valuation can potentially lead to better decision-making in terms of financing, governance, and knowledge and capacity-building. Although primarily targeted at policy- and decision-makers, water resources managers, academics, and the broader development community, we hope that this report will also be useful to economists, social scientists, and those who are engaged in the alleviation of poverty and humanitarian crises, in the pursuit of the human rights to water supply and sanitation, and in the advancement of the Agenda for Sustainable Development.

The report also greatly benefitted from the inputs and contributions of several other UN-Water members and partners, as well as from numerous scientists, professionals and NGOs who provided a wide range of relevant material. On behalf of the WWAP Secretariat, we would like to extend our deepest appreciation to the afore-mentioned agencies, members and partners of UN-Water, and to the writers and other contributors for collectively producing this unique and authoritative report during the COVID pandemic, with all the additional difficulties the situation has imposed on each and all of us.

Their contributions have been instrumental to the production of the WWDR. We extend our most sincere gratitude to all our colleagues at the WWAP Secretariat, whose names are listed in the Team page. The report could not have been completed without their professionalism and dedication. We would like to thank the institutions who have graciously agreed to translate the WWDR into several different languages.

Their support and efforts to broaden the dissemination of the report are very much appreciated. Last but not least, we dedicate this report to the front-line healthcare providers and essential service workers whose tireless efforts allowed us to remain as safe as possible during the COVID pandemic. All who have provided in-kind contributions, and their respective donors, are gratefully acknowledged.

Those who control how water is valued control how it is used. Values are a central aspect of power and equity in water resources governance. The failure to fully value water in all its different uses is considered a root cause, or a symptom, of the political neglect of water and its mismanagement. All too often, the value of water, or its full suite of multiple values, is not prominent in decision-making at all.

There are also different methods for calculating value and different metrics to express it. Differences in the way water is valued occur not only between stakeholder groups but are widespread within them. These divergent perspectives on water value and the best ways to calculate and express it, coupled with limited knowledge of the actual resource, present a challenging landscape for rapid improvements in valuing water. It is, for example, futile to attempt to quantitatively compare the value of water for domestic use, the human right to water, customary or religious beliefs, and the value of maintaining flows to preserve biodiversity.

None of these should be sacrificed for the sake of achieving consistent valuation methodologies. Traditional economic accounting, often a key means of informing policy decisions, tends to limit water values to the way that most other products are valued — using the recorded price or costs of water when economic transactions occur. However, in the case of water, there is no clear relationship between its price and its value.

Where water is priced, meaning consumers are charged for using it, the price often reflects attempts for cost recovery and not value delivered. Yet, regarding valuation, economics remains a highly relevant, powerful and influential science, even though its application needs to be made more comprehensive.

Nevertheless, the different values of water need to be reconciled, and the trade-offs between them resolved and incorporated into systematic and inclusive planning and decision-making processes. The way forward, therefore, will be to further develop common approaches to valuation where feasible, but also to prioritize improved approaches to compare, contrast and merge different values, and to incorporate fair and equitable conclusions into improved policy and planning.

This report groups current methodologies and approaches to the valuation of water into five interrelated perspectives: valuing water sources, in situ water resources and ecosystems; valuing water infrastructure for water storage, use, reuse or supply augmentation; valuing water services, mainly drinking water, sanitation and related human health aspects; valuing water as an input to production and socio-economic activity, such as food and agriculture, energy and industry, business and employment; and other sociocultural values of water, including recreational, cultural and spiritual attributes.

These are complemented with experiences from different global regions; opportunities to reconcile multiple values of water through more integrated and holistic approaches to governance; approaches to financing; and methods to address knowledge, research and capacity needs. But the status and trends of the environment—water interactions clearly indicate the need for much better incorporation of the value of the environment in water resources management.

In most studies, water-related ecosystem services are not treated as a distinct or separate category, and clusters or bundles of services must often be combined from the underlying results to obtain relevant analyses and conclusions regarding water.

Significant values can also be attributed to ecosystem services that relate to supporting resilience, or reducing risks. Many disaster risks are exacerbated by the loss of relevant ecosystem services, as these services played a role in preventing disasters in the first place.

The values of these services can be calculated, but they are often not recognized or adequately included in economic planning, which tends to favour short-term gains over longer-term sustainability.

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This list is by no means complete or exhaustive. Energies , 15, Agyemang, F. Arima, Y. Psychology of Group and Collective Intelligence. Springer Nature.

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Mining blocks on a blockchain equipped with a proof of work consensus protocol is well known to be resource consuming. A miner bears the operational cost, mainly electricity consumption and IT gear, of mining and is compensated by a capital gain when a block is discovered. This paper aims at quantifying the profitability of mining when the possible event of ruin is also considered. This is done by formulating a tractable stochastic model and using tools from applied probability and analysis, including the explicit solution of a certain type of advanced functional differential equation. The expected profit at a future time point is determined for the situation when the miner follows the protocol as well as when the miner withholds blocks. The obtained explicit expressions allow us to analyze the sensitivity with respect to the different model components and to identify conditions under which selfish mining is a strategic advantage. Search Search. Volume 69, Issue 6 November-December

The United Nations world water development report 2021: valuing water

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Premier League football is not a particularly profitable business. Premier League clubs have recorded pre-tax profits just four times since it was launched in , all since There is also a growing divide in English football. Many of the largest clubs are able to turn a profit while the smaller outfits struggle. One of the more obvious answers is branding.

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Overview Recently, Tencent Security Yuzhi Threat Intelligence Center captured a spear-style targeted attack launched by a large digital cryptocurrency trading platform customer service staff. The attacker claimed to be a veteran user of the currency circle. Because of the dissatisfaction with the customer service of the trading platform, the xx platform of the platform and its competing relationship was compared, and several suggestions were listed in the email attachment. I hope the platform can be improved. The email attachment contains a spreadsheet file called "Customer Service and xx Complaint Comparison and Record


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