Mean much

Every year, dozens of Florida panthers are run over by cars. The speeding vehicles have become the endangered cats' biggest predator. In , 26 of the 29 panthers that were found dead by state biologists were killed by being hit by cars or trucks. That's one more than last year's number of roadkill deaths 25 and one down from the total deaths The number is well short of the record of 34 panthers that were run over in , a year in which 42 panthers total died.



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Official websites use. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. JavaScript appears to be disabled on this computer. Please click here to see any active alerts. The EPA does not place a dollar value on individual lives. Rather, when conducting a benefit-cost analysis of new environmental policies, the Agency uses estimates of how much people are willing to pay for small reductions in their risks of dying from adverse health conditions that may be caused by environmental pollution.

In the scientific literature, these estimates of willingness to pay for small reductions in mortality risks are often referred to as the "value of a statistical life.

This is best explained by way of an example. Suppose each person in a sample of , people were asked how much he or she would be willing to pay for a reduction in their individual risk of dying of 1 in ,, or 0. Since this reduction in risk would mean that we would expect one fewer death among the sample of , people over the next year on average, this is sometimes described as "one statistical life saved.

This is what is meant by the "value of a statistical life. Agencies use estimates of values of risk reductions when conducting a benefit-cost analysis of a new policy or regulation that may affect public health. For example, many of the air and water pollution control regulations that are implemented by the EPA will reduce the risks of certain types of cancers, respiratory illnesses, and other diseases among large portions of the general public.

Benefit-cost analysis compares the total willingness to pay for the health risk reductions from these policies to the additional costs that people will bear if the policies are adopted. These costs may come in the form of increased taxes, or, more commonly, increased prices of goods and services whose production, use, or disposal contributes to environmental pollution. The results of a benefit-cost analysis are presented to policy-makers and the public to help inform their judgments regarding whether or not a proposed policy should be adopted.

Only one federal environmental statute, the Safe Drinking Water Act, explicitly calls for the kind of formal benefit-cost analysis describe here. Most environmental laws do not require benefit-cost analysis, and some prohibit it e. Nevertheless, Presidential Executive Orders have required or encouraged the use of benefit-cost analysis in policy evaluation since the early 's.

Benefit-cost analysis is an analytical tool used to evaluate public policy options. For environmental policies, benefits are determined by what individuals would be willing to pay for risk reductions or for other improvements from pollution prevention.

Costs are determined by the dollar value of the resources directed to pollution reduction. If the total benefits exceed the total costs, then the policy is said to "pass a benefit-cost test. Of course in most cases where the total benefits exceed total costs, it will not be true that the benefits exceed the costs for each and every person affected by the policy; rather, some individuals will gain and others will lose.

However, if the total benefits are greater than the costs, then it is in principle possible for those who gain to compensate those who lose so that everyone could be better off with the policy. This is what it means for a policy to pass a benefit-cost test. The benefit-cost test alone is not the only relevant criterion for evaluating public policies since it omits important aspects of the policy decision. In particular, the benefit-cost criterion does not consider the distribution of benefits and costs among the affected individuals.

These distributional effects often will be important to policy-makers and the general, so benefit-cost analysis typically will need to be supplemented by other information. The primary purpose of benefit cost analysis is to provide policy makers and others with detailed information on a wide variety of consequences of environmental policies.

Benefit-cost analysis is only one of many inputs into policy evaluation. Other factors include environmental justice considerations; ethical concerns; enforceability; legal consistency; and technological and institutional feasibility. This approach was vetted and endorsed by the Agency when the Guidelines for Preparing Economic Analyses were drafted.

Few economic analyses prepared by EPA calculated monetary benefits until the mids. This report based its VSL findings on 26 studies, 21 from the wage-risk literature and five from stated preference studies. This study forms the basis of EPA's existing mortality risk valuation guidance discussed above. This estimate was derived from the range of values estimated in three meta-analyses of VSL conducted after EPA's Guidelines were published in Mrozek and Taylor , Viscusi and Aldy , and later, Kochi, et al.

However, the Agency neither changed its official guidance on the use of VSL in rule-makings nor subjected the interim estimate to a scientific peer-review process through the Science Advisory Board SAB or other peer-review group. While the Agency is updating its guidance by incorporating the most up-to-date literature and recent recommendations from the SAB-EEAC, it has determined that a single, peer-reviewed estimate applied consistently best reflects the SAB-EEAC advice until updated guidance is available.

Therefore, EPA has decided to return to the value established in the Guidelines for all its actions until a revised estimate can be fully vetted within the Agency and by EPA's Science Advisory Board.

EPA is committed to using the best available science in its analyses and is in the process of revisiting its guidance on valuing mortality risk reductions. EPA submitted the whitepaper to its Science Advisory Board for feedback and recommendations on several issues including:.

The Agency believes that its benefit-cost analyses would be more transparent and comprehensible if the term "value of statistical life" were replaced with an alternative term that more accurately describes the health risk changes that are being analyzed. The term "value of statistical life" can give the misleading impression that a "price" is being placed on individual lives--as a mugger who says, "Your money or your life!? A benefit-cost analysis attempts to estimate the total sum of money that a large number of people would be willing to pay to reduce their mortality risks by amounts in this general range.

The term "value of mortality risk reduction" conveys this idea more clearly and should reduce the confusion that sometimes arises when discussing the "value of statistical lives. Furthermore, no matter which term is applied, the same underlying data would be used to estimate the value, and these values would lead to the same aggregate benefits if applied to the same policy proposal.

The underlying theoretical concept is the same, and the estimated values for either metric would be based on the same published literature. The difference lies in the choice of units used to aggregate and report the risk changes. The VSL is typically reported in units of dollars per statistical death per year.

For decades economists have been studying how people make tradeoffs between their own income and risks to their health and safety. These tradeoffs can reveal how people value, in dollar terms, small changes in risk. For example, purchasing automobile safety options reveals information on what people are willing to pay to reduce their risk of dying in a car accident.

Purchasing smoke detectors reveals information on what people are willing to pay to reduce their risk of dying in a fire. EPA will review all of the peer-reviewed scientific studies of these income and health risk trade-offs and will attempt to summarize the results in a single best central estimate or range of estimates to use in benefit-cost analyses. The White Paper reviewed by the SAB-EEAC proposed a methodology for both incorporating the latest scientific evidence on how people value small reductions in their risk of dying and combining the estimates in the over 80 studies in the literature.

EPA has identified a set of criteria for selecting studies from the literature and outlined a method for identifying appropriate estimates from those studies. The White Paper highlights a number of statistical issues that are associated with combining estimates from the studies and is seeking SAB feedback on how best to address these issues. EPA has proposed several options for identifying the best estimate or set of estimates for a VMR, but does not propose a value in this White Paper. A cancer differential is the additional amount that people are willing to pay to reduce cancer risks relative to accidental or other categories of mortality risks.

In part, this may reflect the extended period of illness that accompanies life-threatening cancer, but it may also include intangible factors such as the additional feeling of dread associated with cancer. If people value different types of risk differently, then benefits analysis for different types of policies would ideally reflect these preferences. As described in the White Paper on Valuing Mortality Risk Reductions in Environmental Policy , EPA believes there is now sufficient scientific evidence for including a cancer differential in economic analysis of policies that reduce exposure to cancer-causing pollutants.

Altruism is the concern for others. We know from studies that individuals are often willing to pay more when there are reductions in risks to themselves as well as others. That is, many studies show that individuals express altruism when asked how much they would be willing to pay to reduce risks to themselves as well as other people. Since most environmental policy addresses public risks that we all face in common, then it may be important to capture these altruistic preferences in our benefit-cost analysis.

Producing Agency guidance on mortality risk valuation is a multi-step process and depends on the recommendations received from the Science Advisory Board.

Clear guidance based on the best available scientific information that can be consistently applied across the Agency is the goal. Based on the SAB review, new guidance is being developed. Alberini, Anna.

Environmental Protection Agency, Black, Dan A. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 27 3 : Blomquist, Glenn C. Review of Economics of the Household 2 : Mrozek, J. Environmental Protection Agency. Guidelines for Performing Regulatory Impact Analyses.

Office of Air and Radiation. October EPAR, December Viscusi, W. Kip and Aldy, Joseph E. Skip to main content. Related Topics: Environmental Economics. Contact Us. What does it mean to place a value on life? Why do Agencies attempt to value risk reductions in dollars? What is Benefit-Cost Analysis? What is Benefit-Cost Analysis used for? What is the "Value of a Statistical Life"? What value of statistical life does EPA use?

What other values has EPA used in the past? What is the current process for updating the Agency's estimates? Why is EPA proposing to change the terminology it uses when valuing changes in mortality risk? What is a Cancer Differential? What are Altruistic Preferences? When will revised Guidance on Mortality Risk Valuation be available?



Why the ‘No Animals Were Harmed’ movie disclaimer doesn’t mean much

The buildup of phosphorus in lawns, gardens, pastures and croplands can cause plants to grow poorly and even die. Phosphorus buildup is caused by excessive use of inorganic fertilizer or the use of composts and manures high in phosphorus. High soil phosphorus levels also can threaten streams, rivers, lakes and oceans. Phosphorus can become water-soluble and mobile, entering surface waters and causing algae and other undesirable plants to grow. This reduces water quality and desirable fish and aquatic plants.

The Economic Policy Institute breaks down how much Americans have put away. the mean retirement savings of all working-age families.

Florida panther roadkill deaths up slightly, but numbers may not mean much now

Federal government websites often end in. The site is secure. As provided under the legislation, the U. Department of Labor will be issuing implementing regulations. Additionally, as warranted, the Department will continue to provide compliance assistance to employers and employees on their responsibilities and rights under the FFCRA. Workers who are independent contractors under the Fair Labor Standards Act FLSA , rather than employees , are not considered employees for purposes of the employee threshold. Typically, a corporation including its separate establishments or divisions is considered to be a single employer and its employees must each be counted towards the employee threshold.


How much does an All-Star selection mean to players?

mean much

What do your blood pressure numbers mean? The only way to know if you have high blood pressure HBP, or hypertension is to have your blood pressure tested. Understanding your results is key to controlling high blood pressure. Note: A diagnosis of high blood pressure must be confirmed with a medical professional. A doctor should also evaluate any unusually low blood pressure readings.

Adam Frank.

Lyrics – You Still Mean Too Much To Me

He is responsible for the English speaking market of Youmatter since For a long time, planes have been much blamed for greenhouse emissions and global warming. For many years, they were considered the most polluting way of transportation. Trains, buses, and even cars — all vehicles were said to perform better than planes. According to the latest data, not really.


What Does 1 Part Mean? How Much Is a Part?

We had forgotten about the Merlion. It was cool that day — for being smack dab on the equator. Thick monsoon rolling in; Paddle Pop ice cream tacky on my lips. A tiny island off the tiny mainland of Singapore, Sentosa is designed to please travellers from all places and contexts, and is therefore generic, girded with candy-colour iconography. I was seven-years-old. Restless, sun-tired, we wanted to go home but it had started to rain. We had forgotten about the Merlion, but it was right there: a metre statue with a viewing deck and a gift shop.

Australia: Changes to Paid Parental Leave Mean Much More Flexibility for Parents. May 27 The Federal Government has amended its Paid Parental Leave.

Jobseeker's Transitional payment

Moved by the respect displayed by his peers, Devin Booker stilled the excitement brewing inside knowing what might inevitably come next. Despite sitting at eighth in voting by fans for the NBA All-Star Game after final results were released, Booker came in fourth for guards in the Western Conference in the votes submitted by the players. I earned respect from my peers, the guys that spend countless hours in the gym that we get to compete against.


The idea is to move from crisis mode to control mode, approaching the coronavirus in much the same way countries deal with flu or measles. Two years later, some European countries led by Spain are planning to downgrade coronavirus to an 'endemic' disease. What does it mean and what exactly is Spain trying to do? Diseases are endemic when they occur regularly in certain areas according to established patterns, while a pandemic refers to a global outbreak that causes unpredictable waves of illness. For many countries, designating a disease as endemic means that fewer resources will be available to combat it, since it will likely no longer be considered a public health emergency.

Last Wednesday, the Biden administration announced yet another round of sanctions on Russia.

With fears Russia could weaponise gas supplies, Ms Truss added that the UK would also be helping allies with how they source their gas. However, this does not mean gas prices in Britain would be unaffected if there were a conflict between Russia and Ukraine. Because the UK market is closely connected to markets in mainland Europe, a price rise there could mean higher costs here. These LNG supplies are very sensitive to global market prices and are sold to those offering the highest price. Russian President Vladimir Putin could use a gas cut-off as retaliation against Western sanctions and a means to cause disruption to France, Germany and other Nato allies. If Russian gas becomes scarce, countries will have to source other supplies, which could cause a knock-on effect and impact the UK. That is why it is so vital that we are building our wind power and other renewables so fast.

Although many coronavirus restrictions have eased, regulations and guidance remain in place to help stop the spread of COVID Continue to protect yourself and others by following public health advice and find out the rules on what you can and cannot do below. It is now a legal requirement to provide proof of your COVID status before entering nightclubs and indoor unseated or partially seated events with people or more.


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