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No more travellers can been selected, the maximum allowed is 9. No more infants can be selected, the maximum allowed is 1 infant per adult. Blue Mosque: Your itinerary should definitely include a stop at the Blue Mosque, the only functioning place of Muslim worship in the city, and a superb example of Islamic art. It was built in the 18th century by Persian followers of Islam, as a place of worship, and it contains within it a theological seminary.
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- Hotels near ARAM KHACHATURIAN Concert Hall Yerevan, Yerevan
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Hotels near ARAM KHACHATURIAN Concert Hall Yerevan, Yerevan
This economy was specifically destroyed and confiscated during World War I because of its administration by Armenians. We know for a fact that hundreds of Armenian merchants and commercial houses existed alongside factories in the Ottoman Empire during the late s Der Matossian One would speculate that each of these entities at least kept a partial archival record of its business transactions. One such archive, that of Mr. Krikor Chatalian, is at the disposal of the author of this article. One useful source is the history books that were written by Pan-Armenian Unions in the Diaspora during the post-genocide period.
The main objective of these history-writing practices was to preserve the local identities of the Armenians. Ninety percent of these works were written in Armenian.
While I would argue that much of this kind of literature presents a way of mourning the lost homeland, whatever was written during this period is unique: as far as I know there is no popular counterpart in Turkish during the same period of time.
The earliest work that has been done on the subject of abandoned properties in the Armenian language was done by Lutfik Kuyumjian through a series of articles that he published from through in the General Almanac of the Holy Savior Hospital of Istanbul [ Endartsak Taretsuyts S. Hivandanotsi ]. Haigazn Ghazarian has also written on the subject by bringing examples from the eastern provinces Ghazarian , What is interesting to notice is that most of these works have targeted the Armenian audiences and they lack a thematic approach to the subject.
In the last couple of years the historiography in Turkish about the Abandoned Properties has been growing. Furthermore, the study discusses this distribution through the lens of Turkish state formation. According to him, the process began with Abdulhamid massacres in , continued with the Adana massacres of , and reached its climax with the Genocide of The book offers a narrative account of the confiscation and the subsequent appropriation of the Armenian and Greek properties during World War I and the Republican period.
Despite the fact that the book provides a useful account on the rules and regulations passed by the Ottoman and the Republican states, it lacks a thematic approach Onaran Besides discussing the ideological foundations of the confiscation process the book discusses how law and legality was used to create injustice by focusing on two regions: Adana and Diyarbekir.
The effect industrially and commercially of the expulsion of the Armenians from this region is going to be throw its back in the Middle Ages. It is officially stated that ninety per cent of the trade and of the businesses carried out on through the banks is that of Armenians.
Business of all kind will now be destroyed beyond the possibility of its being restored. In some trades there will be no mechanics or workmen at all. For them, this was a land of opportunity for the export of manufactured goods from Europe and the import of agricultural products to the West Gerasimos 7.
What gave a boost to the economic relationship between the West and the Ottoman Empire, however, was the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of , otherwise known as the Balta Liman Treaty. The treaty launched the beginning of free trade with Europe, with lower taxes on trade and the abolition of state monopolies. The Greek and Armenian merchants who were considered the traditional intermediaries between the European countries and the Ottoman Empire benefited from these transformations by subsequently becoming the commercial bourgeoisie class of the Empire Pamuk This was due to an increase in the phenomenon of urbanization, 11 the expansion of the communication network, 12 the opening of the Anatolian market to the West, administrative reforms, and an increase in social mobility.
This in turn led to the increase in the size of the non-Muslim bourgeois class, especially that of the Armenians and the Greeks. For example, in the 19 th century, Kayseri became an important center for manufacturing and supplying goods to Adana, Yozgat, Agn, Tokat, Sivas and Istanbul. Some 15, Armenians lived in the city of Kayseri by the end of the 19 th century and Armenian merchants played an important role in the economy of the city both locally and internationally.
Soon, some of these merchants began expanding their business network to include such cities as Istanbul and Manchester. This network was controlled by such famous merchant houses as the Gulbenkians, Manugians, Frengians, Gumushians and Selians. Harput was an important center for the silk culture because of its climate and large mulberry gardens. The production process began with the raw cocoons and culminated with the packaging of new fabric.
In the 19 th century, the two large families that controlled the silk production were the Fabricatorian Brothers in Mezere Harput and Effendi Kurkjian. The Fabricatorian Commercial House,for instance, was founded in Mezere by Krikor Ipekjian, 13 who later adopted the name Fabricatorian Kalustian 8. The silk that was produced in this factory was of such excellent quality that it was exempted from taxes and given free warehousing and dock facilities in Istanbul.
After his death in , his five sons, Minas, Dikran, Samuel, Garabed and Aharon, took over and improved the business. The Fabricatorian brothers, along with their wives and children, were all killed during the Armenian Genocide, thus effectively putting an end to their commercial legacy in Harput Haig The Vali of the district as well as other Turkish officials took their houses Jafarian Kechejian and his sons, whereas the merchants of hurdavat junk dealers were Mardiros Kesdekian, Garabed Tashjian, Karnig Naregian, and Hagop Peyniremezian.
The most important house of export was the Gulbenkian firm, which, like the Ibranossian firm, had agents in all of the provinces. Tahmazian, A.
Minassian, Gureghian, Aslanian and the Aghnavorian brothers, who controlled the hazelnut business in the province Der Matossian ; Dsotsigian Armenians in the caza of Samsun excelled in the cultivation and production of tobacco; famous merchants and tobacco producers included the Ipekians, Kherians, Ibranossian brothers, Gudugians, Meserians, Aprahamians, Bahchegulians and the Chekmeyans.
This led to the deterioration of the existing agrarian question in Anatolia and the polarization of the Armeno-Turkish conflict Astourian The land reform became a source of contention between the Armenians and the new regime.
For example, the policy of one of the major Armenian political parties, namely the Armenian Revolutionary Federation A.
Land restitution concerned Armenian properties that had been confiscated during the Hamidian period; reform was the unsolved issue of the reform of the Empire in general and the improvement of the condition of Armenians in particular Kaligian In addition, the further deterioration in ethnic relations during the second constitutional period, which manifested itself in the Balkan Wars of and was followed by a massive boycotting of non-Muslim Greek, Armenian and Austrian products, led to the decline of Armenian trade.
Meanwhile, a theory of national economy [ Milli İktisat ] was being developed which strove to eliminate the Armenian and the Greek presence from the field of economy by calling on the Turkish element to develop a capitalist bourgeoisie that would take over the prominent role played by Armenians and Greeks Toprak ; Aktar , , ; Astourian This further encouraged economic boycotts by the Turks or Muslims in general; these began during the Balkan Wars and intensified during World War I.
Hilmar Kaiser argues that on January 6, , Interior Minister Talaat categorically stated that the Ottoman economy had to become Muslim. In addition, he decreed that Armenian property must fall into Muslim hands Kaiser In this case, the institutional continuity is evident as it starts during the Ottoman period confiscation and ends during the Turkish Republic appropriation. Thus, a wide campaign of property confiscation took place in the eastern provinces that included almost anything that could be considered under the general category of supplies and provisions for the Ottoman Army Vartan The first of these decrees was made on the 30 th of May by the decision of the Council of Ministers [ Bakanlar Kurulu ].
These commissions were under the authority of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and were supposed to report about their activities every 15 days. Indeed, the articles of the law stipulated careful and systematic treatment of the movable and the immovable properties of the Armenians. There were special registers in which the names of the owners and the types of the goods that were confiscated were to be recorded in detail. Furthermore, the houses, as well as the type, amount, and value of the land given to them, will be separately registered and the migrants will be given a document showing the quantity of land and property given to them.
Rather it addresses the Muslim migrants who were going to be settled in these areas. Now the government through its efforts is selling their goods Nobody can sell my property if I am unwilling to sell it If we are a constitutional regime functioning in accordance with constitutional law we cannot do this. This is atrocious. Neither the conscience of the Ottomans nor the law can allow it Bayur American as well as European sources tell us another story than that found in the laws: most of the movable property was looted and parts of immovable properties were sold in auctions at a fraction of their original value or given as booty to Kurdish tribes to encourage them to participate in the war.
In order to better understand the mechanism of confiscation I would like to bring in some examples from the provinces of Trabzon, Mersovan, Urfa, Sivas, Aintab, and Harput. Heizer, to the American Embassy in Istanbul in July The 1, Armenian houses are being emptied of furniture by the police one after the other. The furniture, bedding and everything of value is being stored in large buildings about the city.
The goods are piled in without any attempt at labeling or systematic storage. A crowd of Turkish women and children follow the police about like a lot of vultures and seize anything they can lay their hands on and when the more valuable things are carried out of the house by the police they rush in and take the balance.
I see this performance every day with my own eyes. I suppose it will take several weeks to empty all the houses and then the Armenian shops and stores will be cleared out. The commission that has the matter in hand is now talking of selling the great collection of household goods and property in order to pay the debts of the Armenians.
The German Consul told me that he did not believe the Armenians would be permitted to return to Trebizond after the war. George E. White, explains:. All the properties of the Armenians were confiscated, nominally to the state for the war fund. In this way all the Armenian houses, stores, shops, fields, gardens, vineyards, merchandise, household goods, rugs, were taken.
The work was the charge of a commission, the members of which I met personally a number of times. It was commonly said that the commission did not actually receive enough for the government purposes to cover its expenses.
Real estate was put up for rent at auction and was most of it bid in at prices ridiculously low by persons who were on the inside. This I know not only as a matter of common information but directly from a Turkish attorney who was in our employ and who provided himself with one of the best Armenian houses. For example, the Armenian community of Aintab was the wealthiest of its kind in the region and offered a splendid opportunity for pillaging. Most of the merchants of the city being Armenians, their stocks are likewise disappearing.
It is a gigantic plundering scheme was well as a final blow to extinguish the race, this notwithstanding the existence of a Commission appointed by the Government to safeguard the interest of the Armenians. Ephraim Jernazian, an interpreter to the Ottoman government in Urfa during World War I, played the role of a translator during the confiscation process.
In November , the government confiscated the money and jewelry left by Armenians at the Ottoman Bank in Urfa. In his memoirs Rev.
Jernazian was called to translate them into Turkish:. The commission began its work of disposition by breaking into Armenian stores one by one and selling their contents at auction[s].
The chairman of the commission, Nabi Bey, took me with him so that I could keep a record of the merchandise sold. With us were two policemen and an auctioneer. The ritual was the same at each store. First they examined the door seal, then broke it.
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In Soviet years Yerevan underwent massive reconstruction, following architect Alexander Tamanyan's plan to make a "perfect city" - a Neo-Classical town with wide avenues, resembling Paris , Vienna and Saint Petersburg. Central Yerevan is a true jewel of early Soviet architecture. It is also home to some large scale Modern and Post-Modern marvels which are mostly the result of Soviet-Armenian architectural megalomania. In Soviet days Yerevan had already become known as the Pink City as much due to the colour of the tufa stone used for building as for the flamboyant spirit of her young population.