Blockchain 21 inc
SurgePays is a highly innovative fintech company providing a complete suite of financial services and prepaid products to its rapidly growing base of retail c-stores. The Company plans to release the update in January and enable stores on its network to offer cash sales of Bitcoin, Ethereum and Dogecoin without using an ATM or other costly and space consuming equipment. Customers will receive receipts with simple instructions how to load purchased coins into their own digital wallet of choice. The SurgePays blockchain platform already performs more than 20, secure daily transactions of underbanked financial services. This cryptocurrency service represents a powerful expansion of the SurgePays fintech suite of products, providing a competitive advantage catalyst to its recently announced expansion plan utilizing a national sales team. We expect to launch a version update in Q2 of , that would enable consumers to use cryptocurrency to make purchases at any store on the SurgePays network.
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Blockchain 21 inc
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What Is Blockchain Technology?
Part of this paper was written while I was a visiting professor at Erasmus University Rotterdam. Blockchains represent a novel application of cryptography and information technology to age-old problems of financial record-keeping, and they may lead to far-reaching changes in corporate governance.
Many major players in the financial industry have began to invest in this new technology, and stock exchanges have proposed using blockchains as a new method for trading corporate equities and tracking their ownership. This essay evaluates the potential implications of these changes for managers, institutional investors, small shareholders, auditors, and other parties involved in corporate governance. The lower cost, greater liquidity, more accurate record-keeping, and transparency of ownership offered by blockchains may significantly upend the balance of power among these cohorts.
This paper explores the potential corporate governance implications of blockchain technology. A blockchain is a sequential database of information that is secured by methods of cryptographic proof, and it offers an alternative to classical financial ledgers. After an explosion of interest from industry in late , blockchains have captured the attention of the business world, as they offer a new way of creating, exchanging, and tracking the ownership of financial assets on a peer-to-peer basis.
Major stock exchanges are exploring the use of blockchains to register and trade shares of stock issued by corporations. Further applications may exist in government record-keeping of databases for land titles, vital statistics, and many other areas. These innovations may affect owners and managers of public companies in important ways, potentially changing corporate governance as much as any event since the and Securities Acts in the USA.
In this paper, I identify in more detail how the use of blockchains could affect corporate governance from the perspective of corporate managers, institutional investors, debt investors, auditors, and other groups. I also discuss issues related to the internal governance of blockchains themselves, a topic that could become important to corporations in the way that the organization of stock exchanges and other capital market institutions is important today. Blockchains were proposed by Nakamoto as a method of validating ownership of the virtual currency bitcoin.
Blockchains offer potential advantages in cost, speed, and data integrity compared with classical methods of proving ownership, and the scale of these potential savings has motivated investments by venture capitalists and by established players in the financial services industry.
Future extensions could allow blockchains to hold self-executing smart contracts, such as stock options held by employees or warrants owned by outside investors. These smart contracts could extend into areas such as the pre-contracted resolution of financial distress. For shareholders, blockchains could offer lower costs of trading and more transparent ownership records, while permitting visible real-time observation of transfers of shares from one owner to another.
For activists, the technology could allow for quicker, cheaper acquisitions of shares, but with possibly far less secrecy than under the current system. Any and all of these changes could dramatically affect the balance of power between directors, managers, and shareholders. To date the most high-profile proposed use of blockchain technology in corporate finance has occurred in the Australia, where the Sydney-based Australian Securities Exchange in January announced its intention to redesign its clearing and settlement systems using blockchain technology.
In the area of shareholder voting, one of the topics discussed later in the paper, the Estonian stock exchange a unit of the US-based NASDAQ began in to conduct shareholder voting on a blockchain platform.
Emerging markets may be among the first to see blockchain technology integrated into their stock exchanges and capital markets on a large-scale basis. The prediction of early adoption in developing countries rests upon the convergence of three forces: inadequacy of existing record-keeping systems, mistrust of corrupt and ineffective market regulators, and high penetration of information technology such as smartphones.
As examples, the rapid growth of mobile payment systems such as M-Pesa and BitPesa in Kenya, 4 and the recent explorations by the governments of Honduras and the Republic of Georgia of moving their land registries onto blockchains, provide illustrations of the willingness of emerging economies to bypass older technologies and become early adopters of innovations that integrate economic data with information technology.
If blockchains attain a central role in corporate record-keeping, the maintenance and upgrading of blockchains themselves would raise interesting governance problems. Governance of a blockchain amounts to having authority to update its code, which might be done either for technical reasons or to change critical constraints or assumptions such as the rate at which new coins or shares are issued. As implemented for bitcoin and other digital currencies, blockchains operate on a public, open, and decentralized basis, with all participants in a network such as all owners of bitcoins having the opportunity to update them in real time.
As discussed in Section 4, this decentralization of authority over a blockchain might leave it vulnerable to sabotage. Rogue participants intent on crashing the network or diverting assets to themselves might propose software changes that appear benign and are widely adopted, or alternatively, might tempt others to adopt them using strategies based on the exploitation of collective action problems.
Overcoming these vulnerabilities appears to be an important, unfinished priority for promoters of public blockchain technology in its open source form. The alternative of a permissioned blockchain, updated only by authorized participants, appears attractive for security reasons, but it would lack some of the appealing features of an open blockchain. The remainder of the essay is organized as follows.
Section 2 provides a description of blockchains and how they function. Section 3 identifies and discusses a range of corporate governance arrangements that might be altered in a firm registering its securities on a blockchain. Section 4 discusses governance issues connected to the administration of blockchains.
Section 5 concludes the paper. A blockchain records data in a sequential archive. Haber and Stornetta proposed this structure for time-stamping the creation of intellectual property, such as a digital document, in order to fix property rights with the creator before it can be copied by others.
Attempting to forge the information retroactively by changing a prior entry in the archive would cause changes in the sequence of all subsequent entries, since any minor alteration to the input of a hash function causes a significant change in its output that is trivial to observe.
The figure shows the types of data included in Bitcoin transactions, including the source and recipient, the amount of currency conveyed, and the time. The Fee to Verification Agent is an optional fee that the source can set aside for the miner who includes the transaction in a block.
The party with authority to encode new transactions into a blockchain, who can be thought of as a sponsor or gatekeeper for the archive, holds enormous power that potentially poses great risks to individual blockchain participants. In many of the prominent blockchain applications now under development, such as the Australian Securities Exchange in Sydney and the Depository Trust Clearing Corp.
The figure shows the elements of each block on the Bitcoin blockchain, including transaction data, a timestamp, a nonce or random number related to the proof-of-work algorithm, and the hash of the header of the previous block. Since the hash of the block header is included as an element in the header of the next block, the hash of the next block header will also change, as will the subsequent block headers, ad infinitum , thereby making fraud or theft easy to detect at the point at which it occurred.
Maintaining an equilibrium between the number of miners, the size of the mining reward, and the work required to create each new block, all while meeting the needs of the network, represents a complex balancing problem. The current reward to miners is Approximately every 4 years the reward is cut in half, and recently it fell from 25 to Unless changed in the future, the reward will disappear altogether by , at which point 21 million bitcoins will have been mined.
After that, voluntary user fees from agents seeking fast verification of transactions i. The figure illustrates how a proof-of-work scheme makes altering historical data in a blockchain prohibitively costly, since a potential thief or forger would have to alter not only the transaction record they wished to divert, but also all subsequent blocks up to the current one. Along with sufficient incentives to obtain participation by miners, the protocol requires transparency of all blocks so that users have the opportunity to observe any data tampering that occurs.
This open model of a blockchain, with no restrictions on entry, complete transparency of data, endogenous adjustment of proof-of-work incentives, and a passive system of governance, offers a sharp contrast to a private blockchain that limits access.
One clear cost of the public blockchain model is the cost of the proof of work needed to update it, comprised of computer hardware and electricity. On the Bitcoin network, mining has become intensely competitive, and analyses of the cost of mining generally assume that capacity is added up to the point where the marginal cost of mining new blocks aggregated across all miners equals the market value of the expected reward in new bitcoins.
At recent prices, if a block contains about 1, transactions, the mining reward is Miners would then bundle up the transaction into the next block, and the record of the bitcoin transfer would also serve as proof of transfer of the stock. These issues are explored in a recent paper by Swanson Alternatively, a company could sponsor its own blockchain and either update the blockchain itself or establish an incentive system attract miners from outside.
Refinements and appendages to public and private blockchains are quickly emerging. Many of the most prominent blockchain organizations, such as Hyperledger and R3CEV, have followed this model. Sidechains offer potential benefits such as the ability to accommodate overflow transaction volume that may exhaust the throughput capacity of the main blockchain. Other platforms such as Ethereum incorporate many features of blockchains while adding additional functionality, such as a contracting language that allows users to establish contingencies for the transfer of assets and to reach out to an agreed-upon oracle to arbitrate disputes.
Issuing and trading corporate securities on blockchains would create numerous benefits and also certain costs related to greater transparency of ownership and faster, cheaper trade execution and settlement.
Better transparency would significantly impact the profit opportunities available to managers, institutional investors, and shareholder activists, among others, because the incentives to acquire ownership and to liquidate it could change markedly if their transactions were observable in real time. Improvements in trading technology would also affect the incentives to acquire and liquidate ownership for these groups.
Important side effects might spill over into the real economy, since the changing incentives for informed investors to trade might lead to more reliable signals about the value of individual firms.
Firms may recruit board members and outside consultants with different skill sets to deal with these changes, and important topics like management incentives would likely evolve to take account of the changing nature of corporate securities. When used in an open form with free entry and exit, blockchains generate an archive of transactions known as a distributed ledger, because a copy of each block of transactions is distributed or made visible to all members of the network.
The original Haber and Stornetta paper, in which the blockchain structure was proposed for authenticating intellectual property, suggested this structure to crowdsource the function of auditing and verification.
For a company with shares listed on a public blockchain, all shareholders and other interested parties would be able to view the arrangement of ownership at any time and identify changes instantly as they occurred. Not all shareholders would be attracted to this arrangement; activists, raiders, or managers might wish to conceal their trades for exactly the same reasons that small shareholders or fund managers might wish to observe them.
Firms issuing equity would have to balance these considerations and evaluate whether marketing their shares would be more lucrative on a private or permissioned blockchain, where the visibility of transactions could be restricted to a set of member firms or trusted gatekeepers and investors would enjoy more anonymity. Ultimately, a range of blockchains offering varying degrees of investor anonymity might compete in the market to attract corporate listings, with companies sorting themselves among different platforms that appealed to different shareholder clienteles based on their preferences for ownership transparency.
Ironically, issuing companies might find public blockchains attractive as a type of takeover defense, because their transparent structure undercuts the secrecy prized by shareholder activists and corporate raiders when building hostile positions and instead promotes passive shareholder behavior in line with the Grossman and Hart free-rider problem.
All of these conjectures assume that those able to view the distributed ledger of share ownership would be able to identify the holders of individual shares and the counterparties of important transactions.
Many early users of bitcoin were attracted to the currency precisely for this reason, because they believed the blockchain provided anonymity for purchases of drugs, money laundering, and other illegal activities. This process amounts to a modernization of the de-coding methods that Wall Street participants have used for decades if not centuries, attempting to infer the presence of certain buyers or sellers in the market by observing details of the size, timing, and sequence of their trades.
On the Bitcoin blockchain, maintaining anonymity has at times proven difficult. Law enforcement officials have successfully identified and prosecuted money launderers, drug dealers, operators of virtual casinos and Ponzi schemes, and other miscreants. Potentially a share owner could stay a step ahead by using a different digital wallet for each transaction or breaking transactions into small pieces using several wallets at once.
To defeat these strategies, regulators might require corporate insiders to disclose their digital wallet identifications, or public keys, under penalty of law. This would likely be part of an evolution of the disclosure regulations that most countries apply to managers and significant outside shareholders, who typically must identify themselves after passing certain ownership thresholds. Stock trades in the USA generally require three business days for settlement to occur and ownership to move formally from seller to buyer.
During this interval, funds pass between brokers and their clients, and shares are transferred on the books of the brokerage and the ledger of the corporation, all under the supervision of the Depository Trust Clearing Corp. Many people are involved in this process. In contrast, a sale of stock on the blockchain could be settled much more quickly, depending upon the cycle time for adding new blocks, and it would not require numerous middlemen, reducing the costs that now appear variously in commissions and bid-ask spreads.
Although stock markets would probably continue to operate in some form to facilitate the meeting of buyers and sellers, liquidity could increase greatly in response to the lower cost and faster speed of settlement. Cost savings on a blockchain market would take both direct and indirect forms.
The direct cost savings would accrue from the reduction in personnel and streamlining of processes compared with those used currently. Indirect savings, potentially larger, would emerge from the reduced need for firms to tie up assets in collateral as a form of bonding during the settlement process.
Liquidity is a critical issue for portfolio managers and other investors both large and small. Improving liquidity could increase the demand for stocks and have many significant effects on patterns of investment and ownership. For instance, high frequency equity trading might become much more common if the cost of trading were reduced through this type of innovation.
Major outside shareholders would be affected by both the greater transparency and improved liquidity that could arise from blockchains. As shown in a survey by Edmans , a large number of papers have studied the impact upon shareholder activism of either or both of these forces, and certain models predict either greater or lesser involvement by major shareholders in corporate governance when either transparency or liquidity is increased.
Greater transparency would potentially be seen as costly by activists and raiders, and as a result they might be more reluctant to invest in firms that were traded in blockchain markets.
Building share positions secretly is a time-honored strategy of these investors, who wish to minimize their costs of acquisition by avoiding publicity as they buy Bebchuk and Jackson,
Coinbase, A Bitcoin Startup, Goes Public. Is Crypto Really The 'Future Of Finance'?
Despite mostly finance-related interest in blockchain technology , the areas of distributed ledger technology DLT application are not limited to the financial services industry. Along with banks and FinTech startups, non-financial players have been paying attention and looking for ways to leverage the opportunities that DLT opens. Here are some interesting examples of the applications of blockchain technology beyond financial services:. Ascribe helps artists and creators to attribute digital art via blockchain. It also allows to accept consignments from artists and transfer digital works to collectors with all the terms and legals. Serica is one of the examples of blockchain companies in the cannabis industry.
What Is Bitcoin? Should You Invest?
For those who don't know the difference between a governance token and a memecoin. Against all odds, blockchain technology has gone mainstream. Bitcoin has become a household word, and financial institutions around the world invest in cryptocurrencies or allow their customers to do so. But despite all the publicity, blockchain technology is still extremely arcane. It's truly understood only by talented engineers -- many of whom were early adopters of cryptocurrencies like bitcoin and ether -- and can be overwhelming for the layperson. Below is an alphabetical glossary of blockchain terms you might find useful. Note: It's far from an exhaustive list of terms and phrases, but covers the basics.
Либо искомый домен заблокирован по решению суда
Bobby Allyn. Coinbase on Wednesday became the first major cryptocurrency company to be publicly traded on the Nasdaq. Coinbase, a San Francisco startup that allows people to buy and sell digital currency, became the first major cryptocurrency company to go public when it made its stock market debut on Wednesday. That's about what Facebook was worth when it had its initial public offering in Coinbase's listing on the Nasdaq under the ticker symbol "COIN" was heralded by enthusiasts as a turning point for once-obscure digital currencies.
What We Do
Bitcoin pioneered decentralized infrastructure and Ethereum brought programmability. But earlier proof-of-work blockchains consume massive amounts of energy and process transactions slowly in order to achieve acceptable levels of security. Heavy bandwidth consumption by these technologies leads to expensive fees, even for a simple cryptocurrency transaction. The Hedera proof-of-stake public network, powered by hashgraph consensus, achieves the highest-grade of security possible ABFT , with blazing-fast transaction speeds and incredibly low bandwidth consumption. By combining high-throughput, low fees, and finality in seconds, Hedera leads the way for the future of public ledgers. Sharding to enable unlimited tps. For Hedera, the range is shown for transactions not requiring a transaction record but can receive a transaction receipt. Network Services.
Bitcoin at $100,000 or popped by Fed? Crypto predictions for 2022
Buy, sell and earn crypto assets with a regulated Swiss company. The bank guarantee by a state-backed Swiss Cantonal Bank and our audited cold storage solution are some of the reasons why our clients trust us with over CHF 5 billion in cryptocurrencies. Additionally, crypto assets can be traded against various fiat currencies. The rates shown are representative only and do not reflect current market conditions.
A trust based taxonomy of blockchains is presented. We consider the evolution of trust and draw parallels to significant societal developments in which information technology tools played a key role. This approach permits us to understand the origins of blockchains, the excitement that currently permeates this space and the promise this technology holds for the future. Besides providing an up-to-date literature survey, we take a critical look at the architectural elements of public and private blockchains and discuss various trade-offs. In addition to demystifying the technology behind blockchains, we demonstrate that not all pieces of the blockchain puzzle are created equal. In particular, we show that consensus mechanisms play a vital role in developing highly available distributed solutions and argue that given that foundation, building distributed applications becomes extremely easy.
Hyperledger Member companies are hiring. Hyperledger Foundation hosts a number of enterprise-grade blockchain software projects. The projects are conceived and built by the developer community for vendors, end user organizations, service providers, start-ups, academics and others to use to build and deploy blockchain networks or commercial solutions. The Hyperledger Foundation staff is part of a larger Linux Foundation team that has years of experience in providing program management services for open source projects. Provide a neutral, open community around enterprise blockchain supported by technical and business Governance.
The Global South harbors some of the planet's most precious natural resources and is hence key in addressing the pressing environmental challenges of the Anthropocene. Here, payments for ecosystem services PES have recently gained importance as a means of environmental governance, increasingly complementing conventional command-and-control approaches. For instance, climate change is now mitigated through carbon offset payments and biodiversity loss is addressed through wildlife conservation performance payments.