Blockchain and housing discrimination

Banks are run by people — and people, despite best efforts to defend equal rights or to draft fair lending practices, discriminate. In Washington, D. Credit scores were omitted from the analysis because they are not publicly recorded. It is not simply for the unbanked, but for the banked who are routinely rejected for loans or believe they endure a pattern of discrimination. Remittance institutions take advantage of African corridors through the highest fees of any continent.

We are searching data for your request:

Databases of online projects:
Data from exhibitions and seminars:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

WATCH RELATED VIDEO: The Housing Market - If You Don’t Know, Now You Know - The Daily Show

Inside the World of Black Bitcoin, Where Crypto Is About Making More Than Just Money

People experiencing homelessness PEH are medically complex, with limited access to health care and unmet health-related social needs. People experiencing homelessness must access a wide range of health and social services, for which they must typically show proof of identity.

Many PEH do not have original vital documents, which are highly susceptible to damage, loss, or theft. Lack of proof of identity is a major barrier to receiving services, and can exacerbate health inequities plaguing this population. Blockchain technology can be used to ensure secure and portable identity management in health care.

Based on our clinical experience caring for this population, and implementation of a pilot blockchain-based identity management solution for PEH in our community, we believe blockchain can solve the identity management problem among PEH.

We propose a research agenda that will help stakeholders determine how blockchain technology could be an innovative and effective techQuity solution for this pernicious problem. Homelessness, identity, identity management, blockchain, technology, health equity, access to care, techQuity.

They are unthinkable, and only to be approached by the statistician or the poet. There are over half a million people experiencing homelessness in the United States. In a year prospective cohort study conducted in Boston — , unsheltered homeless adults had an all-cause mortality rate 10 times higher than the general population, with a mean age of death of 53 years. In order to meet their needs, PEH must access a wide range of health and social services.

However, two fundamental problems exist. First, to access these services, PEH must typically show proof of identity. However, many PEH do not have original vital documents, such as state-issued IDs or birth certificates, which are easily susceptible to damage, loss, or theft. As any homeless service provider or person experiencing homelessness themselves can tell you, this is an exceedingly common issue, and replacing vital documents or lost IDs is complex, burdensome, and time-consuming.

Our prior study based on qualitative interviews with PEH in Austin, Texas, showed that at least one third of clients lacked a basic identity document when they entered the health and human services system in the city. Therefore, lack of proof of identity is a major barrier to receiving health care and social services, and can exacerbate the health inequities plaguing this population.

Blockchain technology can be used to ensure secure and portable identity management in health care, and holds great promise to be a techQuity solution for the problem of identity management for PEH. Once verified the new transaction is attached to a block of information with other verified transactions.

These verified blocks of information [End Page ] are then linked to the previously verified blocks of information thus creating a chain. Any change in previously verified information in any block is therefore detected easily because it changes the cryptographic code Figure 1.

The architecture of blockchain technology thus creates a set of features that ensure security and privacy along with an individual's control over their information, which is not easily established in existing health information systems.

Despite being an evolving technology, blockchain technology is increasingly being used in solving real-world problems. Cryptocurrencies are being used by banks, governments, and private markets and the cryptocurrency sector is expanding rapidly. Beyond finance and business, blockchain technology applications have also been making their mark in the social and health sectors. Blockchain applications in the social sector include the empowerment of rural farmers in Africa, Asia, and South America.

Recently, the City of Austin worked with the University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical School to test the feasibility of using blockchain technology to establish an identity management system for persons experiencing homelessness. The project involved social and health care service providers and patients with lived experience of homelessness. One of the key features of blockchain that may provide some innovative ways to help address inequities in health is that its foundations are based on mathematical algorithms that can be scrutinized and audited to rectify any systematic discrimination or bias.

While the concern of biased algorithms is being raised more widely now, the research to address these concerns is still in its early stages. The system works on agreed-upon principles or consensus and brings transparency and auditability that can prevent judgmental or stereotyped interpretation or implementation of rules. It also protects an individual's privacy and identity by sharing validated credentials without having to share complete identification records. For instance, if an individual must prove that they are over 18 years old, that information can be validated through blockchain's immutable record without having to share the full identity document or even date of birth.

Individual PEH preferences and comfort level with the various options for log-in mechanisms password, QR codes, biometrics , affordable devices e. Similarly, business process changes and acceptance of these trust mechanisms by institutions may be influenced by existing law and regulatory requirements that must be updated. Validation and verification of data and issuance of identity documents when multiple public and private agencies are engaged in multiparty transactions may have competing solutions.

Despite the promise of blockchain technology to address identity management in health care and social services, much remains unknown about the scope of the problem, how blockchain technology could be applied to address it, and how this might translate into addressing the health inequities that result from it.

Therefore, we propose a research agenda that will help key stakeholders determine how blockchain technology could be an innovative and effective techQuity solution for the problem of identity management for PEH.

While practical examples of blockchain applications in health care are being reported at an increasing rate, according to two recently published systematic reviews, very little empirical research has been conducted so far.

Most of the empirical research has focused on the use of blockchain to strengthen health information technology HIT security or privacy, or to improve HIT interoperability across different health care systems. Only a very small minority of studies looked at whether blockchain technology could actually improve health care outcomes. While applications of blockchain technology have been reportedly used in rural Indonesia, Kenyan slums, and Syrian refugee camps for identity management, we are not aware of any empirical research, other than our own preliminary pilot work, that evaluates blockchain's applicability for identity management with PEH.

We derived this research agenda from three main sources: first, was a rationale, pragmatic set of questions that arose based on our own clinical work caring for this population as well as our own pilot project using blockchain technology; second, was a critical review of the literature described above, noting key research [End Page ] gaps; and third, we drew constructs and questions from well-described theoretical frameworks concerning the adoption and uptake of new technologies, including the technology acceptance model TAM and the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology UTAUT.

Clinicians caring for PEH, and the social workers who often help them track down vital documents, can tell you anecdotally that identity management in this population is a pervasive problem. Our own pilot data show that photo IDs and other vital documents are required to access services at nearly every health care or homeless services agency in our community.

This type of research will provide a clear baseline from which to benchmark future progress on blockchain's use in addressing this problem and narrowing health inequities.

While there is still very much a digital divide between PEH and the general population, there are some preliminary data to suggest that many PEH do have access to mobile phones 43 and that mobile health technology mHealth interventions are both acceptable and feasible in this population.

Furthermore, many questions remain about the details of how service providers and policymakers would implement and use such a system. We must determine how much of a technology literacy gap must be overcome by PEH and service providers alike to understand what blockchain technology is, what it can and cannot do, and how it will be applied to solve the identity management problem. Furthermore, the perspective of policymakers and other regulators must be heard and incorporated in order for such a disruptive technology solution to be implemented.

This will require both formative research and empirical evaluation of blockchain-based identity management systems. Blockchain technology is neither homogeneous nor monolithic, and is rapidly evolving. As the number of use cases and industries testing this technology increase, more innovative blockchains are being developed.

Concerns about the speed of transactions per second, 46 high energy consumption for achieving consensus in a distributed network, 47 and incentives for operators of the network, have been addressed with variations in the design and consensus mechanisms. The introduction of permissioned blockchains which usually allow a consortium of trusted entities to process transactions may provide some early adoption for businesses, such as health care organizations, that hesitate to put their data on a public ledger.

In health care, where providers still resist openly sharing patient information, these technical innovations are important in the adoption of blockchain technology. Hyperledger Indy, for instance, has been developed as an open source permissioned platform by a consortium of some of the large tech companies to help manage distributed identities securely and can facilitate the creation of a potential identity management system.

We must map all the nodes, stakeholders, and technological requirements in a system involved in creating, procuring, reissuing, verifying, and using someone's identity. Fundamentally, we need to understand what technology infrastructure and capabilities must be in place, at both the individual level and the system level, in order for a blockchain-based identity management solution to be adopted and implemented.

This may require solving unusual technological infrastructure problems, and uncovering and testing various interoperability issues. Blockchain technology purports to be able to create a secure, private, accessible, portable, and immutable transaction ledger for disparate systems to share protected health information. Much of the research to answer the four questions above will be formative in nature, from characterizing the baseline scope and burden of the problem, to answering questions of acceptability and feasibility, to understanding the technological [End Page ] infrastructure required as well as the legal and ethical considerations of implementing such a solution.

However, two fundamental questions remain. First, does blockchain technology actually solve the problem of identity management for PEH? Second, does this promote health equity for PEH, by increasing access to services, improving health, and reducing homelessness? People experiencing homelessness experience grave health inequities. The identity management problem faced by this population is a major driver of these inequities by fundamentally cutting off their access to necessary health care and social services.

Urgent and innovative solutions are needed to address health inequities in this and other vulnerable populations. We propose that blockchain technology has the potential to be an innovative and effective techQuity solution that can solve the identity management problem for PEH and ultimately help reduce the health inequities that disproportionately affect this population.

However, blockchain is still an emerging and relatively untested technology. While it is seeing increased applications across the health care and social sectors, this is still largely uncharted territory, and a myriad of questions remain unanswered. In the case of using blockchain technology for identity management and improving health equity among PEH, we propose a research agenda consisting of five key questions that span defining the baseline problem, addressing acceptability and feasibility, mapping technology infrastructure requirements, understanding legal and ethical considerations, and rigorously testing the effectiveness of such a solution.

Without addressing the first four research questions, interventions may be implemented that are not acceptable to PEH or service providers, that do not account for the requisite technology considerations, or that have untoward legal or ethical ramifications.

Without rigorously testing the fifth question, we may risk implementing yet another trendy technology that at best falls short of addressing inequities, and at worst continues to perpetuate the systems and structures driving the inequities in the first place. If the research community does not rigorously explore the legal, ethical, operational, and equity implications of this technology, the tech industry may start implementing these solutions independently in an attempt to solve problems that traditional systems have been unable to solve.

Therefore, there is urgency to the imperative that researchers get involved early to ensure that the implementation of this technology does not further isolate, stigmatize, and disempower those who are already experiencing inequities in our society. In partnership with PEH and other key stakeholders, we believe this research agenda has the potential to chart the path for blockchain technology to truly become a techQuity solution by solving the identity management problem for PEH.

Google Scholar. Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide. Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves. Built on the Johns Hopkins University Campus. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website.

Without cookies your experience may not be seamless. Institutional Login. LOG IN. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. The Health Inequities of Homelessness There are over half a million people experiencing homelessness in the United States. Nameless Faces In order to meet their needs, PEH must access a wide range of health and social services.

A Potential TechQuity Solution Blockchain technology can be used to ensure secure and portable identity management in health care, and holds great promise to be a techQuity solution for the problem of identity management for PEH.

Unanswered Questions Abound: A Research Agenda While practical examples of blockchain applications in health care are being reported at an increasing rate, according to two recently published systematic reviews, very little empirical research has been conducted so far. Scope and burden of the problem: What is the true scope and burden of the identity management problem among PEH, and what is its quantifiable impact on driving health inequities in this population? Acceptability and feasibility of the solution: What are the perspectives of acceptability and feasibility among PEH, service providers, and policymakers on the use of blockchain technology for identity management?

Technology and Infrastructure Requirements: What technology and technology infrastructure would be needed to implement blockchain solutions for identity management among PEH? Ethical, legal, and regulatory implications: What are the legal, regulatory, compliance, and ethical considerations in using blockchain technology for identity management among PEH? Implementation and effectiveness: How do we best implement, test, and scale a blockchain technology solution for identity management among PEH and evaluate whether it enhances health equity?

Conclusion People experiencing homelessness experience grave health inequities. References 1. The health of homeless people in high-income countries: descriptive epidemiology, health consequences, and clinical and policy recommendations.

How this real estate investor is tackling affordable housing through blockchain

This module takes place online. If you are a student from the University of Massachusetts system, the University of Wisconsin system, and participating universities in Queensland you will participate as exchange students and will not pay fees directly to Frankfurt Digital Summer School. Please contact your study abroad advisor for more information on how and when to apply. Digital technology has developed rapidly in recent years and is currently revolutionising the financial sector. The development and use of technical innovations poses new challenges to the various fields of law and raises specific legal issues. We combine some technical background with the most salient legal issues.

Crypto fans have argued that code can be a better arbitrator than traditional regulators.

FedNow Service is an Opportunity for Blockchain

This emerging technology is generating a huge amount of interest amongst the technology community in Silicon Valley and elsewhere. It is widely predicted to transform huge swathes of industry over the next five to ten years and beyond. A vast number of potential applications have been identified, some of which are already starting to be exploited. Blockchain can best be described as a digital platform or database for securely storing information and recording transactions. However, there are some key points to be aware of:. Whether a blockchain is private or public will, as the name suggests, determine the user group that has access to the information on that blockchain. There is no universally established and accepted definition of a smart contract, but in essence they are coded instructions that self-perform when certain criteria are met. The relevant computer code is uploaded to a ledger, in place of more basic passive data entries. A simple example might be a smart contract-enabled insurance policy that automatically pays out to a policyholder on the occurrence of an insured event. Smart contracts often use blockchain technology to record and execute transactions.

US charges Facebook with high-tech housing discrimination

blockchain and housing discrimination

Qty :? Your pre-order item will usually be shipped on the publishing date of the book. You will not be charged for pre-ordered books until they are available to be shipped. Pre-ordered ebooks will not be charged for until they are available for download. For orders that have not been shipped you can usually make changes to pre-orders up to 24 hours before the publishing date.

Blockchain continues to find new kinds of usage and adoptions with each passing day. The pilot project aims to assess whether the distributed ledger technology DLT can be utilized to simplify and streamline the present-day court processes with focus on securely handling digital evidence.


This is considered to be highly secure because information in one Block cannot be changed without changing all of the information in all of the prior Blocks. Think of it like the process of recording a deed to a house. You can add information like a new owner, but you cannot change the past information without going back and changing all of the Deeds going back to the King of England or other relevant King or Queen as the case may be. Blockchain is being considered as a useful and secure way to keep track of all kinds of information. Cryptocurrencies use Blockchain to permanently record transactions to avoid fraud as Cryptocurrencies can be copied or duplicated and then used again. While useful for digital currencies, Blockchain is a process that can be utilized for a variety of many different uses.

The Blockchain Project

NEW YORK — The federal government charged Facebookwith high-tech housing discrimination Thursday for allegedly allowing landlords and real estate brokers to systematically exclude groups such as non-Christians, immigrants and minorities from seeing ads for houses and apartments. The civil charges filed by the Department of Housing and Urban Development could cost the social network millions of dollars in penalties. In a statement, Facebook expressed surprise over the charges, saying it has been working with HUD to address its concerns and has taken steps to prevent discrimination, including eliminating thousands of ad-targeting options last year that could be misused by advertisers. Just last week, Facebook agreed to overhaul its targeting system and abandon some of the practices singled out by HUD to prevent discrimination, not just in housing listings but in credit and employment ads as well. The move was part of a settlement with the American Civil Liberties Union and other activists.

Keywords: affordable housing, Austin, blockchain, distributed ledger, of individuals living in homelessness and the discrimination they face.

Computer Science Major Sees Blockchain As Future Factor

Daniel Kuhn. This post is part of CoinDesk's Year in Review, a collection of op-eds, interviews and takes on the state of blockchain and the world. Anand Aanchal is a land specialist and blockchain expert at the World Bank.

Comment Letters

RELATED VIDEO: Real World Blockchain Applications - Real Estate

The sources of these illicit outflows are numerous. The leading cause, however, is hidden behind a web of otherwise legal activities, as fraudulent invoicing of commercial trade comprises These shadow economies consists of illegal and unethical mining, smuggling, and tax avoidance, set in an environment that deprives the local population of the economic benefits that accrue from resource extraction. Misinvoiced resources cross borders and change hands, are mixed with other inventory, and are ultimately sold in high-income countries for consumption in the manufacturing, electronics, and jewelry sectors, among many other industries. Locally, the unmonitored extraction and trade of minerals enables money laundering, corruption, environmental destruction, health hazards, and child labor.

We are one of the only legal teams in our footprint with substantive experience helping scores of token developers and investors, as well as those building the infrastructure of decentralized finance, to plan and execute legally sound ICOs, STOs, and other digital asset transactions. Our attorneys represent some of the best-known names in the industry and have consistently been at the forefront of emerging blockchain applications in health care, manufacturing, private equity and real estate.

Bloomsbury Professional Law Insight - Cryptocurrency in Matrimonial Finance

There are growing initiatives and calls to focus greater attention to the social determinants of health SDOH and their impact on population health Heiman and Artiga, Several emerging strategies are being used to begin to address social determinants, such as the use of health impact assessments and applying health in all policies HiAP. These strategies and tools are being implemented in an effort to review existing and needed policies, as well as to propose new policies to lessen health disparities Koh et al. Efforts to further integrate SDOH through the use of health information technology and other emerging technologies, such as distributed ledger technology both in and outside of existing healthcare systems, are also increasing Koh et al. Understanding and addressing the SDOH through both traditional and non-traditional sectors is key to further reducing health disparities Heiman and Artiga, ; Cottrell et al. Through exploration of the current state of SDOH in the healthcare industry, an analysis of blockchain technology will render the acceleration and adoption of SDOH to effectively provide improved health outcomes. Social determinants of health SDOH have an outsized effect on individual healthcare outcomes.

Disclaimer: These summaries are provided for educational purposes only by Nelson Rosario and Stephen Palley. They are not legal advice. Also we might change our minds.

Comments: 5
Thanks! Your comment will appear after verification.
Add a comment

  1. Mejar

    I absolutely agree with the previous statement

  2. Gardarr

    This very good sentence is just about right

  3. Berford

    I congratulate, what necessary words ...

  4. Goltile

    Surely. I agree with all of the above-said. Let us try to discuss the matter.

  5. Niklas

    A very funny thing