Cryptocurrency for beginners 2019
Facebook has finally revealed the details of its cryptocurrency, Libra, which will let you buy things or send money to people with nearly zero fees. Today Facebook released its white paper explaining Libra and its testnet for working out the kinks of its blockchain system before a public launch in the first half of The association will promote the open-sourced Libra Blockchain and developer platform with its own Move programming language, plus sign up businesses to accept Libra for payment and even give customers discounts or rewards. In cryptocurrencies, Facebook saw both a threat and an opportunity.
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- What are the disadvantages of cryptocurrencies?
- Cryptocurrency Fraud
- Cryptocurrency For Beginners
- Best online brokers for buying and selling cryptocurrency in February 2022
- A Beginner’s Guide to Buying Cryptocurrency in Hong Kong
- How To Trade In Cryptocurrency? Here Are Some Beginners' Tips
- 10 Best Crypto Exchanges: Top Cryptocurrency Trading Platforms Reviewed
What are the disadvantages of cryptocurrencies?
Cryptocurrencies often tend to maintain a publically accessible ledger of all transactions. This open nature of the transactional ledger allows us to gain macroeconomic insight into the USD 1 Trillion crypto economy.
We specifically focus on the aspect of wealth distribution within these cryptocurrencies as understanding wealth concentration allows us to highlight potential information security implications associated with wealth concentration.
We also draw a parallel between the crypto economies and real-world economies. To adequately address these two points, we devise a generic econometric analysis schema for cryptocurrencies. Our analysis reports that, despite the heavy emphasis on decentralization in cryptocurrencies, the wealth distribution remains in-line with the real-world economies, with the exception of Dash. This suggests that the free-market fundamentalism doctrine may be inadequate in countering wealth inequality within a crypto-economic context: Algorithmically driven free-market implementation of these cryptocurrencies may eventually lead to wealth inequality similar to those observed in real-world economies.
Economic freedom is one of the foundational pillars of the crypto-anarchist movement Ludlow, Crypto anarchism is a political ideology that focuses on using cryptographic methods to attain anonymity, freedom of speech, and freedom of trade May, often through a counter-economic environment. A counter-economic environment facilitates financial transactions beyond the purview of a government, leading to freedom of trade London, , where a counter economy includes the free market, the black market, and the underground economy.
These crypto-anarchist objectives are materialized primarily through recent developments in cryptography, privacy-focused distributed networks, and decentralized peer-to-peer currencies Chohan, , where their appeal is as an alternative to traditional financial system in that they embody increased freedom to trade DeVries, The adoption of trade-friendly regulations has been suggested to improve wealth distribution by encouraging the flow of wealth among nations Bank, ; Irwin, This article explores that line of reasoning, evaluating the hypothesis that wealth distribution improves in the absence of restrictive trade regulation, in a cryptocurrencies context, using measures of wealth concentration.
This is a contentious hypothesis because according to the inequality model developed by Boghosian , the free market model adopted by cryptocurrencies is not without limitations in this regard, suggesting that wealth naturally trickles up in a free market economy leading to wealth inequality.
In contrast, many cryptocurrency researchers have suggested that blockchain might provide a solution to the issue of wealth inequality in a free market-based economy Chohan, ; van den Hoven et al. For instance, Othman et al. However, it must be acknowledged that participation in these crypto economies is subjected to many barriers to entry, such as internet access requirement and high transaction fee. Major cryptocurrencies tend to maintain an open distributed ledger of all financial transactions executed to date.
This transparent nature of cryptocurrencies can be used to measure wealth concentration in these cryptocurrencies. Thus, this research work assesses the following question:. Past reports such as Griffin and Shams have suggested that manipulation of exchange rates through wealth concentration is feasible and has been observed in the cryptocurrency market. According to Sai et al. This potential for successfully executing security attacks due to large wealth concentration makes it essential to understand the current state of wealth distribution.
The exact implementation of a cryptocurrency-based financial system can vary significantly in different cryptocurrency implementations. Thus, this fairer wealth distribution hypothesis needs to be assessed for a range of cryptocurrencies to increase the generality of the findings.
This paper will conduct an empirical evaluation of wealth concentration in 8 major cryptocurrencies in two broad categories: Bitcoin-like 6 cryptocurrencies including Bitcoin and Ethereum-like 2 cryptocurrencies including Ethereum. Bitcoin is currently the largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization, with a current valuation of USD Billion CoinMarketCap, Many prominent cryptocurrencies are based on the fundamental design of Bitcoin by forking copying the source code of Bitcoin Neudecker and Hartenstein, We refer to these cryptocurrencies collectively as Bitcoin-like cryptocurrencies.
For our empirical review, we shortlist the top six Bitcoin-like cryptocurrencies including Bitcoin itself based on the market capitalization: Bitcoin, Litecoin, Bitcoin Cash, Dash, ZCash, and DogeCoin. The second category of cryptocurrencies selected for the analysis is Ethereum-like cryptocurrencies. Ethereum currently has a total market capitalization of USD Billion CoinMarketCap, , is ranked as the second-highest valued crypto asset and allows for transactions to contain transactional logic in the form of Turing complete contracts.
Ethereum is also an interesting case study for wealth inequality analysis as Ethereum has a provision to allow users to write smart contracts to dictate economic behavior over the cryptocurrency in the form of a crypto token 1 Buterin et al.
Similar to Bitcoin forks, Ethereum also has several forks; among these, the most prominent example is Ethereum Classic. We review both Ethereum and Ethereum Classic for our study. We also review the current January state of wealth distribution in the top five tokens issued on the Ethereum platform for our analysis. We conduct an econometric analysis by calculating macroeconomic measures of inequality for these cryptocurrencies and contrasting these measures with traditional economies.
We also examine an extrinsic factor, policy changes, to understand if factors outside the cryptocurrencies may influence the wealth distribution in the crypto economies. We also perform econometric analysis on the top five tokens deployed on the Ethereum platform, which helps us to understand the impact of policy configurability on wealth distribution as these tokens allow programmers to define the economic policies that govern these assets.
This methodology considers the volume, velocity, and variety of data generated by different forms of cryptocurrencies. Specifically, it reports on the potential relationship between the type of policy changes and the wealth concentration Section 4. In addition, based on our reflections on the empirical protocol adopted, the paper proposes a set of reverse engineering techniques that can be used by future researchers in their analysis of wealth concentration to partially circumvent cryptocurrency privacy provisions Section 6.
We also specifically report on how the current state of econometrics analysis in cryptocurrencies is insufficient to capture the economic aspects of these complicated assets Section 6. Economic inequality can be broadly categorized into income and wealth inequality Simpson, Income inequality examines the distribution of income in a country or political union of nations.
The notion of income inequality does not directly translate to crypto economies as the open ledger maintained by these crypto economies only contains information relevant to the wealth determined by units of currencies owned by each participant. Wealth inequality examines the economic heterogeneity of a country or a political union Cagetti and De Nardi, The exact definition of wealth varies depending on the application area; however, wealth is generally defined in terms of financial assets Hamilton and Hepburn, A financial asset is defined as a non-physical or physical asset that can be used for financial transactions Moles and Terry, Then wealth inequality is measured based on the distribution of these financial assets over a population.
However, calculating wealth inequality is harder than income inequality as individuals can have negative wealth due to financial liabilities such as credit and loans.
Current statistics from Alvaredo et al. A standard method for calculating wealth inequality can be obtained through econometrics.
The broad field of econometrics is concerned with applying statistical techniques to economic data to produce empirical evidence for the financial construct under examination Stock and Watson, Such measures of statistical dispersion 2 are commonly used for quantifying the wealth inequality in economies.
In , Max Lorenz developed a graphical way of representing economic inequality through the use of Lorenz curve Gastwirth, The Lorenz curve graphically represents the percentage of wealth accumulated by various portions of the population ordered by the size of their wealth Gastwirth, On the x -axis, we plot the percentage of the population, and on the y -axis, we plot the percentage of wealth. As an illustrative example, we have plotted the Lorenz curve for Ireland based on the data obtained from CSO, for This line illustrated by the blue line in Figure 1 represent the perfect distribution of wealth.
The area between the line of equality and the Lorenz curve can be used to understand the spread of inequality. An important statistical construct used to numerically describe this spread of wealth is the Gini coefficient.
The Gini coefficient is a numeric value aimed at quantifying the inequality in the distribution Gini, To calculate the Gini value for Ireland in , we use the Lorenz curve. We can calculate the Gini Coefficient as follows:. Following this approach, we report that the Gini value for Ireland in for wealth distribution is 0.
Based on Eq. Similarly, a Gini value of 0 would represent the perfect distribution of wealth in the country, i. Thus, the Gini value calculated for Ireland 0. Thus far, we have discussed the meaning and measurement of wealth inequality in the context of world economies.
In the following subsection, we review wealth inequality in a crypto-economic context. Considering cryptocurrencies as financial assets is a topic of much debate in the economic and financial research domain Corbet et al. This is primarily driven by the argument regarding the intrinsic and extrinsic values associated with the crypto assets.
For this article, we focus on the extrinsic value of cryptocurrencies by using their exchange rate to USD as a proxy. The use of USD as a proxy allows us to better draw parallels between crypto economies and traditional world economies.
Due to the open ledger nature of cryptocurrencies, it is easy to gain a macroeconomic view of the economy by conducting data analysis over the open ledgers. Most cryptocurrencies maintain a publically accessible ledger of all transactions in their financial system.
This allows us to use data analytics to construct a macro view of these cryptocurrencies. Gini coefficient has been suggested as a useful metric for measuring economic centralization in cryptocurrencies Kondor et al. Both Bitcoin and Etheruem employ different data structures to maintain records of transactions. Thus the deanonymizing process varies significantly depending on the type of blockchain under analysis.
UTXO specifies the value and state 3 of each Bitcoin present in the ecosystem. This list is then used to calculate the balance for the given address. The process of calculating balance is considerably simplified in Ethereum-like cryptocurrencies. Ethereums transaction data structure contains a balance field that can store and retrieve balance for a given address.
Determining the balance of all addresses is fundamental to the calculation of wealth distribution in cryptocurrencies. However, gaining a macro perspective is not sufficient to observe the wealth distribution in these cryptocurrencies. As indicated in Section 1, cryptocurrencies adhere to the crypto-anarchist ideology by employing privacy-preserving policies to maintain anonymity while retaining the freedom to trade.
This is primarily achieved through the use of cryptology in constructing and executing transactions. A macro view of the crypto economy without explicit consideration of this privacy-preserving nature would likely yield an inaccurate measure for wealth distribution as identifying wealth associated with individuals is difficult. That is, major cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin and Ethereum, provide pseudo-anonymity to the users through cryptographically generated addresses.
Most of these cryptocurrencies also offer provisions for generating a new address for each transaction Gutoski and Stebila, This induces further complexity into the determination of wealth distribution as a single user in a cryptocurrency may have his wealth distributed over multiple addresses. To avoid skewing the econometric analysis due to many addresses with a very small balance, Srinivasan and Lee propose using a monetary lower bound on balance.
For instance, introducing a requirement of a minimum balance of USD for inclusion in Gini calculation can significantly improve accuracy by eliminating several addresses with very low or zero balances. They justify this choice by arguing that many addresses in these cryptocurrencies are only used once for privacy reasons, and addresses with a low balance are unlikely to see future transactions for example addresses employed for one transaction only.
Despite or maybe because of this tweak, it is hard to establish the accuracy of this method. Srinivasan and Lee suggest using an alternate metric to measure wealth, and other forms of distribution in cryptocurrencies. For example, many prevalent cryptocurrencies are subjected to an honest majority assumption.
Enjoy challenges on the go plus other interactive activities on the new Staying Sharp app. Try it today! But the prospect of quick riches can blind some people to the risks and enable crooks to lure them into scams. But unlike government-backed money, the value of virtual currencies is driven entirely by supply and demand.
Cryptocurrency For Beginners
While the older law sought to impose a complete ban on all crypto-related activities including mining, buying, holding, selling, and dealing, the new one will look to make a clear distinction when it comes to its often used categorisation as a currency. Currently, there is no regulation or any ban on the use of cryptocurrencies in the country. However, it allows for certain exceptions to promote the underlying technology of cryptocurrency and its uses. The bank warned users, holders, and traders of virtual currencies about the potential financial, operational, legal, customer protection, and security-related risks they are exposing themselves to. The central bank pointed out that it has been keeping a close eye on developments in the virtual currency world, including Bitcoins, Litecoins, and other altcoins. But as banks continued to allow transactions on cryptocurrency exchanges — on February 1, , RBI released another circular, reiterating its concerns with virtual coins. And by the end of , a warning was issued by RBI and the finance ministry clarifying that virtual currencies are not a legal tender.
Best online brokers for buying and selling cryptocurrency in February 2022
Cryptocurrencies often tend to maintain a publically accessible ledger of all transactions. This open nature of the transactional ledger allows us to gain macroeconomic insight into the USD 1 Trillion crypto economy. We specifically focus on the aspect of wealth distribution within these cryptocurrencies as understanding wealth concentration allows us to highlight potential information security implications associated with wealth concentration. We also draw a parallel between the crypto economies and real-world economies. To adequately address these two points, we devise a generic econometric analysis schema for cryptocurrencies.
A Beginner’s Guide to Buying Cryptocurrency in Hong Kong
Ad The fast growth of cryptocurrency has been the rage for quite some time now, with investors wanting in on the promising profits of digital currency. However, there has been skepticism around the credibility of some crypto trading platforms, especially considering how easy some systems are to hack. No one wants their Bitcoin stolen by hackers. Launched in China, in , Malta-based Binance is among the most popular crypto trading exchanges globally. Binance allows you to buy, sell, and trade cryptocurrency, charging 0.
How To Trade In Cryptocurrency? Here Are Some Beginners' Tips
Bitcoin and other prominent cryptocurrencies have gained much attention since the last several years. Globally known as digital coin and virtual currency, this cryptocurrency is gained and traded within the blockchain system. The blockchain technology adopted in using the cryptocurrency has raised the eyebrows within the banking sector, government, stakeholders and individual investors. The rise of the cryptocurrency within this decade since the inception of Bitcoin in has taken the market by storm. Cryptocurrency is anticipated as the future currency that might replace the current paper currency worldwide. Even though the interest has caught the attention of users, many are not aware of its opportunities, drawbacks and challenges for the future.
10 Best Crypto Exchanges: Top Cryptocurrency Trading Platforms Reviewed
Cryptocurrency is becoming increasingly popular in Hong Kong, with hundreds of Bitcoin ATMs around the city and exchange headquarters relocating from China. For those in Hong Kong looking to invest in cryptocurrency, here is everything you need to know about wallets, ATMs, OTC exchange services, and online purchasing options. There are several ways to acquire crypto in Hong Kong, with both local and global options available, in person and online. Among these, there are various kinds of crypto exchanges , from peer-to-peer and overseas to over-the-counter OTC.
Welcome to the ultimate beginner's guide to cryptocurrency. Here, you'll get a crash course in crypto and be well on the right path towards embracing the world of blockchain. The spectrum is vast: there are people that believe crypto is the future and there are those who believe crypto is nothing but a fad or a scam. There have always been crypto detractors.
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The rapid emergence of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies has taken many in the energy sector by surprise. This report summarizes complexities and pitfalls in analyzing the electricity demand of new information technology, focusing on Bitcoin, the mostly widely used cryptocurrency. It also gives best practices for analyses in this space, and reviews recent estimates in light of those best practices. Things change rapidly for cryptocurrency, so special care such as including an exact date for each estimate is needed in describing the results of such analyses.