Data sharing blockchain
Former U. If cut out of the information flow, their decisions may be poor, not made, or not confidently or persuasively implemented. As we saw with the discovery of the WireX malware , threat intelligence sharing is critical to discovering new threats. So what is inhibiting the smooth flow of the highest-value threat intelligence? Inadvertently revealing a vulnerability or breach leaves companies open to reputational brand damage and the threat of legal action. A smart contract is used to enforce organizational requirements for attributes such as reputation and contribution levels to limit who has access to the threat intelligence information that members publish.
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Data sharing blockchain
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- What Is Blockchain?
- A blockchain-assisted framework for secure and reliable data sharing in distributed systems
- Ghostor: Toward a Secure Data-Sharing System from Decentralized Trust
- A Blockchain Platform for User Data Sharing Ensuring User Control and Incentives
- How Blockchain and AI Enable Personal Data Privacy and Support Cybersecurity
- What Blockchain Could Mean for Your Health Data
- A framework for data sharing between healthcare providers using Blockchain
- China names blockchain trial zones after its crackdown on cryptocurrencies
- Using blockchain to improve data management in the public sector
- Blockchain: enabling transparency for water data sharing
What Is Blockchain?
An important function of government is to maintain trusted information about individuals, organizations, assets, and activities. Local, regional, and national agencies are charged with maintaining records that include, for instance, birth and death dates or information about marital status, business licensing, property transfers, or criminal activity. Managing and using these data can be complicated, even for advanced governments.
Some records exist only in paper form, and if changes need to be made in official registries, citizens often must appear in person to do so. Individual agencies tend to build their own silos of data and information-management protocols, which preclude other parts of the government from using them. And, of course, these data must be protected against unauthorized access or manipulation, with no room for error. Blockchain technology could simplify the management of trusted information, making it easier for government agencies to access and use critical public-sector data while maintaining the security of this information.
A blockchain is an encoded digital ledger that is stored on multiple computers in a public or private network. The core innovation of blockchain is that it allows for decentralized verification of any information added to an encoded digital ledger.
The ledger extends across a network of computers and servers. There is no central agent that decides if a change to the blockchain is legitimate. Instead, all the computers in the network follow a protocol to independently verify transactions and generate automated consensus on the acceptance or rejection of a change. This verification process, along with modern encryption methods, can effectively secure the data on blockchain ledgers against unauthorized access or manipulation.
Additionally, decentralized storage of information reduces the risk that users will not be able to get the data they need when they need it—there is no single point of failure. Of particular interest to public-sector agencies, the use of blockchain may result in the following:. Tamperproof records. Users of a blockchain database could easily reconstruct when a change to the ledger occurred, what information was modified, and where in the network the change originated.
Digital ownership and transfer of assets. Agencies could forego paper documents and set up an efficient digital infrastructure to record asset ownership and provide the means to easily transfer information about bills of sale, deeds, and the like. Smart contracts. Blockchain ledgers can also store contracts in software code, so when predefined external conditions are met, online transactions can kick in.
The high level of security afforded through blockchain allows the contracting parties to trust a decentralized execution engine to implement the terms of agreement.
So far, banks, payment-service providers, and insurance companies have shown the highest level of interest and investment in blockchain. For more, see Blockchain in insurance—opportunity or threat?
But we believe government agencies have just as much to gain from experimenting with this technology and deploying it strategically through pilot projects.
In the longer term, the technology may even allow individuals and organizations to gain direct control over all the information the government keeps about them. This level of transparency could, in turn, make it easier for agencies to achieve buy-in for the creation of networked public services. This article focuses on the use of blockchain to improve records management.
Governments might also use the technology to implement digital currencies and payments. There are a number of blockchain tools and technologies that government agencies can implement today to protect critical data and improve the management of records associated with property ownership and incorporation.
In the long term, as blockchain matures, governments may also use it to enable networked public services. Protection of critical data. In , for instance, hackers obtained personal details, Social Security numbers, fingerprints, employment history, and financial information for about 20 million individuals who had been subject to a background check by the US government.
Encryption methods can never be percent safe, but blockchain technology can make similar breaches a great deal more difficult to achieve. The nation of Estonia, for example, is rolling out a technology called Keyless Signature Infrastructure KSI to safeguard all public-sector data. KSI creates hash values, which uniquely represent large amounts of data as much smaller numeric values. The hash values can be used to identify records but cannot be used to reconstruct the information in the file itself.
The hash values are stored in a blockchain and distributed across a private network of government computers. Whenever an underlying file changes, a new hash value is appended to the chain, and this information can no longer be changed. The history of each record is fully transparent, and unauthorized tampering from within or without the system can be detected and prevented.
KSI allows government officials to monitor changes within various databases—who changes a record, what changes are implemented, and when they are made. The electronic health records of all Estonian citizens are managed using KSI technology, and the country is planning to make KSI available to all government agencies and private-sector companies in the country.
Digital property ownership. The process of owning and transferring assets—whether physical property or financial instruments—typically involves multiple interactions and a long paper trail. Government agencies could meaningfully cut down on both by digitizing information about asset ownership and storing it on blockchain registers. Consider the emerging use of blockchain technology by the Swedish government. When it comes to real-estate transactions in Sweden, the stakes are high.
Yet the registration and transfer of properties remain onerous tasks. It is prototyping a mobile app that would provide transaction space for sellers and buyers as well as their real-estate agents and banks. A blockchain would record detailed information on the properties being sold as well as each step in the sales transaction.
Communications among all the parties in the sale would become more transparent. Paper documentation—typically hundreds of pages long—would become superfluous. When implemented, the app is expected to reduce the time needed to complete a sale from three-to-six months to just a few days, in some cases even hours. The Swedish government is piloting a blockchain database intended to significantly streamline real-estate transactions.
The database would allow for trusted digital verification of purchasing contracts, bills of sale, mortgage deeds, and other critical documents. It could also shorten the time between the writing of a purchase contract and the final registration of the asset transfer from months to days, and, in some cases, hours, while also reducing the risk of errors and fraud. The digital ledger would record each step of a real-estate transaction as well as the property titles themselves.
This would help reduce processing time and legwork. Because contracts and other critical documents would be rendered in digital form and signed digitally, there would be no need to create multiple paper copies, mail them, and then wait for signatures and responses.
Everyone involved could retain a copy of the purchase agreement on their mobile phones; each copy would have a verification code registered in the blockchain. Since digital signatures would be provided with the same application at several instances, the risk of errors and fraud would be reduced.
The republic of Georgia has indicated that it will test a similar technology, allowing citizens and companies to use a smartphone application to acquire and transfer property titles within a short period of time and at limited cost. Digital processing could significantly decrease the cost of this service to governments; in turn, agencies could pass the savings on to citizens.
An additional benefit of using blockchain to keep track of property ownership is that insiders, too, could be held in check; it would be that much harder for unauthorized government employees to manipulate information.
This could lead to more secure property rights in parts of the world where the rule of law is weak and abuse of power is high. Smart incorporation. The US state of Delaware is in the early stages of creating incorporation services based on blockchain records and smart contracts, rather than paper-based exchanges. The process of incorporation, of course, involves filing the appropriate documents, establishing a separate legal entity, holding organizational meetings, issuing shares, adopting bylaws, and so on.
A digital approach to incorporation would benefit, in particular, the growing number of private companies with complicated equity structures, where different shareholders have different rights and obligations. The rules associated with particular investments in a business could be formulated as smart contracts embedded in a blockchain. This blockchain might then be used to automate voting procedures or ensure compliance with rules regarding when and how investors can sell their shares.
Governments normally know a lot about individuals and organizations because of all the data they collect. Because this information exists in agency and department silos, however, it is often not used to the fullest possible extent. Agencies that provide social services typically have little or no direct access to information about interactions that a client may have had with other public authorities. And collecting such information can be a painstaking effort, requiring lots of time and legwork.
In one Scandinavian country, for instance, civil servants who are responsible for planning rehabilitation programs for convicted criminals spend more than half of their workdays trying to get information about these individuals from different government agencies. From a technical perspective, there is no good reason for keeping data in silos. With some effort, many governments could create central repositories or enterprise systems for sharing information across agencies.
A critical sticking point, however, is security—like their counterparts in the private sector, public agencies cannot, under any circumstances, make sensitive data accessible indiscriminately. Emerging blockchain technology may support such a scenario exhibit. Each person or organization would have all relevant data about them basic personal information, for instance, or records of previous interactions with government agencies stored in a dedicated ledger within an encrypted blockchain database.
Individuals or companies could access these ledgers through the Internet. End users could then give government agencies the authority to read or change specific elements of their individual ledger using public- and private-key cryptography. Public- and private-key cryptography systems use pairs of keys to authenticate and encrypt information that travels between two parties. They could use public keys to selectively share information relating to a particular service transaction with agencies.
In certain situations, smart contracts could expose certain information to designated agencies if predefined conditions are met. If recipients of unemployment benefits are imprisoned, for instance, that information could be transmitted to the labor agency so payments can be stopped for the duration of the sentence. The use of blockchain ledgers would reduce the risk of unauthorized access through strong encryption and data manipulation through tamperproof audit trails.
Indeed, public services could become truly networked, without infringing unduly on privacy rights. Individuals and companies would no longer need to spend a lot of time filling in forms with information they had already provided to the government. Government IT departments that want to adopt blockchain solutions must deal with an industry that is evolving quickly. Such fast growth presents challenges for IT decision-makers in government.
First, there are no widely accepted standards for blockchain technologies or the networks that operate them. Government IT organizations—like everyone else—may therefore have a hard time assessing the quality of available solutions and determining how best to integrate them within their existing IT landscapes.
Second, because many blockchain providers are small start-ups, it may be difficult for IT and procurement departments to identify partners with staying power—that is, companies that can offer cutting-edge products but are stable enough to see projects through to implementation.
At the same time, privacy risks will require constant attention. Leaders in government agencies will need to understand the legal and regulatory implications of blockchain, among them: To what degree will smart contracts be binding?
Can blockchain audit trails be used as evidence in court? Should the use of blockchain be mandatory in certain fields?
A blockchain-assisted framework for secure and reliable data sharing in distributed systems
Standard deviation measures how dispersed returns are around the average. A higher standard deviation indicates that returns are spread out over a larger range of values and thus, more volatile. Access to companies involved in blockchain technology and indirect crypto exposure. Active management: Allows the ETF to make timely decisions and assess opportunities and risks in this fast-developing space. Convenience and transparency of the ETF structure. Fund holdings are subject to change at any time and should not be considered recommendations to buy or sell any security.
Ghostor: Toward a Secure Data-Sharing System from Decentralized Trust
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A Blockchain Platform for User Data Sharing Ensuring User Control and Incentives
Data-sharing systems are often used to store sensitive data. Both academia and industry have proposed numerous solutions to protect the user privacy and data integrity from a compromised server. Practical state-of-the-art solutions, however, use weak threat models based on centralized trust —they assume that part of the server will remain uncompromised, or that the adversary will not perform active attacks. We propose Ghostor, a data-sharing system that, using only decentralized trust , 1 hides user identities from the server, and 2 allows users to detect server-side integrity violations.
How Blockchain and AI Enable Personal Data Privacy and Support Cybersecurity
With the development of 5G and mobile cloud computing, data sharing plays an increasingly important role in IoT development since most IoT applications are deployed upon data sharing Cao et al. It is estimated that 5 quintillion bytes of data will be produced by IoT devices and these data will be analyzed and shared among devices, which is producing a large-scale market Li et al. However, the current IoT data market is far from meeting those expectations. More specifically, it is difficult to balance multiple interests due to lack of consensus among participating parties, and on the other hand, there is a lack of secure control and supervision among the complex interactions of multiple parties, so that the privacy of participants cannot be well protected. Blockchain is an immutable public ledger secured by the participants in a peer-to-peer network.
What Blockchain Could Mean for Your Health Data
One of the benefits of Internet of Vehicles IoV is improved traffic safety and efficiency, for example due to the capability to share vehicular messages in real-time. While most of the vehicular messages only need to be shared by nearby vehicles, some messages e. Finding a single trusted entity to store and distribute such messages can be challenging, and vehicles may not be inclined to participate e. In addition, achieving both security and privacy can be challenging. In this paper, the authors propose a blockchain based secure data sharing system to address the above challenges in an IoV setting. Specifically, in their system, announcement messages are stored using blockchain.
A framework for data sharing between healthcare providers using Blockchain
An important function of government is to maintain trusted information about individuals, organizations, assets, and activities. Local, regional, and national agencies are charged with maintaining records that include, for instance, birth and death dates or information about marital status, business licensing, property transfers, or criminal activity. Managing and using these data can be complicated, even for advanced governments. Some records exist only in paper form, and if changes need to be made in official registries, citizens often must appear in person to do so.
China names blockchain trial zones after its crackdown on cryptocurrencies
Emerging ownership models on the blockchain View all 4 Articles. We propose a new platform for user modeling with blockchains that allows users to share data without losing control and ownership of it and applied it to the domain of travel booking. Our new platform provides solution to three important problems: ensuring privacy and user control, and incentives for sharing. It tracks who shared what, with whom, when, by what means and for what purposes in a verifiable fashion. The paper presents a case study of applying the framework for a hotel reservation system as one of the enterprise nodes of Multichain which collects users' profile data and allows users to receive rewards while sharing their data with other travel service providers according to their privacy preferences expressed in smart contracts. The user data from the repository is converted into an open data format and shared via stream in the blockchain so that other nodes can efficiently process and use the data.
Using blockchain to improve data management in the public sector
BEIJING, Jan 30 Reuters - China has selected 15 pilot zones and identified several areas of application to "carry out the innovative application of blockchain" technology, according to a joint government statement on Sunday. The pilot zones include areas in China's major cities of Beijing and Shanghai, as well as Guangzhou and Chengdu in the southern Guangdong and Sichuan provinces respectively, according to statement on the Cyberspace Administration's official Wechat social media account. The entities will conduct the projects in fields such as manufacturing, energy, government and tax services, law, education, health, trade and finance, and cross border finance. Give full play to the role of blockchain in promoting data sharing, optimising business processes, reducing operating costs and improving collaboration efficiency in building a credible system," the statement said. In October , China president Xi Jinping said the country should accelerate the development of blockchain technology as the core for innovation. Although China is promoting blockchain technology, it has banned bitcoin, which is based on the technology. Regulators in September cracked down on cryptocurrencies with a blanket ban on all crypto transactions and mining.
Blockchain: enabling transparency for water data sharing
The Information Protection and Secure Data Sharing A device, equipment or piece of software used to carry out a particular process or procedure. Sudden, urgent, usually unexpected occurrence or event requiring immediate action. Note 1 to entry: An emergency is usually a disruption or condition that can often be anticipated or prepared for, but seldom exactly foreseen.