Blockchain based distributed control system for edge computing pdf

The Internet of Things IoT has extended the internet connectivity to reach not just computers and humans, but most of our environment things. The IoT has the potential to connect billions of objects simultaneously which has the impact of improving information sharing needs that result in improving our life. For instance, scalability and security issues that arise due to the excessive numbers of IoT objects in the network. Therefore, moving the IoT system into the decentralized path may be the right decision.



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Privacy-preserving blockchain based IoT ecosystem using attribute-based encryption


Digitization and automation have engulfed every scope and sphere of life. Internet of Things IoT has been the main enabler of the revolution. There still exist challenges in IoT that need to be addressed such as the limited address space for the increasing number of devices when using IPv4 and IPv6 as well as key security issues such as vulnerable access control mechanisms. Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology that has immense benefits such as enhanced security and traceability.

Thus, blockchain can serve as a good foundation for applications based on transaction and interactions. IoT implementations and applications are by definition distributed.

This means blockchain can help to solve most of the security vulnerabilities and traceability concerns of IoTs by using blockchain as a ledger that can keep track of how devices interact, in which state they are and how they transact with other IoT devices. IoT applications have been mainly implemented with technologies such as cloud and fog computing, and AI to help address some of its key challenges.

The key implementation challenges and technical choices to consider in making a successful blockchain IoT BIoT project are clearly outlined in this paper. The security and privacy aspect of BIoT applications are also analyzed, and several relevant solutions to improve the scalability and throughput of such applications are proposed. The paper also reviews integration schemes and monitoring frameworks for BIoT applications.

A hybrid blockchain IoT integration architecture that makes use of containerization is proposed. Blockchain has been tagged as one of the most disruptive technologies of all time. There have been many applications in different sectors and industries such as finance [ 1 ], healthcare [ 2 , 3 ], utilities [ 4 ], agriculture [ 5 ], real estate [ 6 ], and supply chain management [ 7 , 8 ].

This is because trusted intermediaries that serve as gatekeepers for certain applications in these industries can be eliminated and those same applications can be run in a decentralized manner without any centralized authority. This is done efficiently without any compromise on efficiency and security which was not possible in times past.

The concept and implementation of blockchain have enabled the establishment of trustless peer-to-peer networks that enable participants on the network to transact and share data without having to trust each other.

Third-party trusted intermediaries have been notoriously known to cause a delay in transaction times in most industries. An absence of such intermediaries would mean that there would be faster reconciliation between transacting parties and participants. Blockchains operate with a heavy reliance on cryptographic schemes and hashing functions which tend to bring a high sense of security and authoritativeness to all interactions and transactions in the network.

Blockchains in past times were just seen as distributed ledgers or databases, but they have been empowered by smart contracts. Smart contracts are independent self-executing scripts that reside on blockchains that give it a high level of autonomy that combines all the aforementioned features to provide a truly distributed platform. This has earned the interest of many developers and industry giants in the Internet of Things IoT domain.

Internet of Things IoT has also had many implementations in different areas such as smart healthcare solutions [ 3 ], smart and connected agriculture [ 9 , 10 ], smart homes [ 11 , 12 ], wearables [ 13 , 14 ], augmented reality [ 15 , 16 ], and transportation [ 17 ], among others. IoT transforms traditional objects and devices into intelligent objects by exploiting technologies such as internet protocols and sensor networks.

Blockchains and IoT on their own have proven to bring immense advancement and advantages to the areas and sectors that they have been applied. The goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive description of how blockchains and smart contracts work, their origins i.

We would also seek to give some insight into IoT devices and networks and highlight the key considerations that are needed to use the two technologies together. This will enable readers to identify possible use cases in industries that do not already have such implementation.

This would also empower anyone willing to implement a blockchain IoT BIoT project to know the right things to do and to make informed decisions when integrating blockchains into their project. Even if it means the project is to be started from scratch, the works analyzed in this paper would provide a sound basis to make the right technical choices. The structure of this paper is as follows. In Section 2 , we examine the root technology of blockchains Distributed Ledger Technologies DLTs and explain how blocks and chains are formed in blockchains.

We also look into how smart contracts work. The section ends with a taxonomy of some common blockchains. The functioning of IoT devices and networks is also explained. In Section 3 , some past BIoT implementations are considered and discussed in detail.

In this section, the key technical choices that have to be considered for any BIoT implementation are outlined. The best cryptographic and consensus algorithms needed to integrate blockchains into IoT devices and networks are also discussed. Section 4 talks about the challenges that have been faced so far by current BIoT implementations as well as the issues that IoT developers and researchers would need to keep in mind when deploying a blockchain-based IoT solution. Section 5 explores more deeply the current challenges that have plagued and challenged other BIoT applications by considering the challenges faced in the aspects of privacy, security, scalability, throughput, and latency as well as some solutions that have been provided in literature to compact and solve them.

Section 6 considers some future directions and recommendations that should be taken into account when BIoT solutions are being implemented. Section 7 summarizes all the contributions that we have made in the paper.

Our conclusions are presented in Section 8. This paper reviewed a number of application scenarios where the adoption of BIoT applications has been proposed and even in some cases implemented. The search in all the databases returned results. Google Scholar and SpringerLink returned a number of unrelated results; thus, just the first relevant and fitting results were considered for our review. Our search through these databases was done based on the keywords that have been outlined in this paper.

Search strings were formed from these keywords. The following search string was used:. The search was conducted in May The search took into consideration the application areas where BIoT had been used.

We do note that the list of application scenarios mentioned in this review is not exhaustive but they provide a good overview of things that are possible with BIoTs.

The procedure that was used is summarized in Figure 1. We chose some of the most promising application areas being studied by researchers now as well as some application areas that have not yet been studied by other existent detailed surveys.

For example, [ 7 ] looked at methods of integrating blockchains with IoT, [ 18 ] reviewed IoT security, and [ 19 ] reviewed machine learning techniques for ensuring IoT security. None of these reviews analyzed in depth the integration of blockchain and IoT, its security and privacy aspects altogether.

In addition, we have added some deep learning techniques for ensuring BIoT security and we have also provided some further research directions in the area of machine learning that still need to be applied to BIoTs.

A hybrid blockchain IoT integration architecture that makes use of containerization is also proposed. The literature that we considered from our search was selected based on a three-year temporal criterion. The studies that were included were from the years to The studies in that were considered were just those that were available at the time of conducting this research.

The reason for choosing the three-year criterion was so that we may have access to the newest, most relevant, and exciting studies that are shaping future research ii Relevant Information Gathering and Selection.

The final list of considered studies for this review was based on a full-text reading of those studies which were within our temporal range. The papers used for the state-of-the-art section of this paper were those that provided a very good understanding of the underlying technologies that constitute blockchains and IoTs.

In the rest of the review, we considered literature that provided novel solutions, frameworks, and architectures to BIoT implementations. Studies that were not closely related to the defined research topic were not considered and thus excluded from this review. Some of the literature appeared as duplicates in 4 different databases; thus, there were publications considered but after eliminating the duplicates, publications remained.

The last selection phase was based on full-text reading, and 63 of these publications were excluded. This was due to the fact that some of the information discussed was quite general and others did not have full implementation or design details.

DLT uses a combination of technologies that have a considerable history in mathematics, computer science, and commercial applications. All these technologies come together to create a distributed database that is shared and possessed by each member in the network [ 20 ]. Thus, a set of protocols are designed to replicate this database which is represented in a timestamped and an ordered manner which is called a ledger [ 21 ].

The data in the ledger that is possessed by each party in a DLT network is kept consistent by means of hash chaining. Any DLT must have these features: decentralized architecture, be trustless, must have collective maintenance and a reliable database, and maintain the anonymity of nodes [ 9 ]. These facts can be expounded upon as follows: i Decentralized.

There is no centralization in the whole system, and thus, if one node in the system crashes or goes off the network, the system should still be up. This goes to speak of the robustness of DLTs ii Trustless. Nodes on blockchain networks are capable of trusting one another since the system is running with full transparency iii Collective Maintenance.

The nodes and the blocks on the system are maintained by no one and everyone since blockchains have consensus algorithms that help to prove the authenticity of blocks iv Reliable Database.

Every node receives a copy of the current ledger as it is. The reliability of the blockchain ledger has been shown to scale with an increase in the number of nodes available on the blockchain network. Since there is no need for trust in the network, nodes can remain anonymous and there is no need to reveal the identity of a node.

There are two main classes of DLTs. Blockchains are DLTs that have their origins in cryptocurrencies. Blockchains are talked about in much detail in Section 3. Directed Acyclic Graphs DAGs , on the other hand, works with a graph structure that is directed with no cycles connecting to any other edges. This allows a DAG to keep the trustless properties of DLTs because, since the edges of the graph are directed and go only in one direction, it makes it impossible to revert the entire graph structure.

The graph being directed in one direction also allows the DAG to have the feature of traceability. This is because whenever you start at any one edge, you can follow through the graph structure all the way to where it ends. In this section, we discuss the building blocks that make up blockchain technology. This is to help understand the rest of the paper. The blockchain technology is a part of a set of technologies called Distributed Ledger Technologies. These technologies are capable of tracking, coordinating, carrying out transactions, and storing information from different devices in different locations thus eliminating the need of a centralized cloud system.

Blockchain technology has been growing at an ever-increasing rate over the past few years. A report by Statista shows that the startup investment capital into blockchain rose to about million U. The rise of cryptocurrencies has led to the rapid popularity of the blockchain technology.

Bitcoin [ 21 ] was the first of the bunch to surface and has been seen by people as the king of cryptocurrencies. Others have also grown in popularity over the years, and these include the likes of Ethereum [ 25 ], Ripple [ 26 ], and Dogecoin [ 27 ].



IIT Madras: Advanced Certification in Software Engineering for Cloud, Blockchain & IoT

Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. The rapid evolution of technology allows the healthcare sector to adopt intelligent, context-aware, secure, and ubiquitous healthcare services. Together with the global trend of an aging population, it has become highly important to propose value-creating, yet cost-efficient digital solutions for healthcare systems. These solutions should provide effective means of healthcare services in both the hospital and home care scenarios. In this paper, we focused on the latter case, where the goal was to provide easy-to-use, reliable, and secure remote monitoring and aid for elderly persons at their home. We proposed a framework to integrate the capabilities of edge computing and blockchain technology to address some of the key requirements of smart remote healthcare systems, such as long operating times, low cost, resilience to network problems, security, and trust in highly dynamic network conditions.

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Skip to Main Content. A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. Blockchain Based Distributed Control System for Edge Computing Abstract: Edge computing proposes a novel model for providing computational resources close to end devices that are connected to the network. It has numerous applications in Internet of Things, as well as smart grids, healthcare, smart home, etc. This paper presents ongoing research regarding the use of blockchain technology as a platform hierarchical and distributed control systems based on IEC standard. Hyperledger Fabric was selected as the blockchain solution, where function blocks are to be implemented as smart contracts on a supervisor level. The integration with the edge nodes that perform on the executive level responsible for actual process control is based on a micro-services architecture where Docker containers implement function blocks, and Kubernetes platform is used for orchestrating the execution of containers across the edge resources. Article :. DOI:


Blockchain-Based Internet of Things and Industrial IoT: A Comprehensive Survey

blockchain based distributed control system for edge computing pdf

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How Blockchain and AI Enable Personal Data Privacy and Support Cybersecurity

A cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual currency that is secured by cryptography, which makes it nearly impossible to counterfeit or double-spend. Many cryptocurrencies are decentralized networks based on blockchain technology—a distributed ledger enforced by a disparate network of computers. A defining feature of cryptocurrencies is that they are generally not issued by any central authority, rendering them theoretically immune to government interference or manipulation. Cryptocurrencies are digital or virtual currencies underpinned by cryptographic systems. They enable secure online payments without the use of third-party intermediaries. Cryptocurrencies can be mined or purchased from cryptocurrency exchanges.


Blockchain Based Distributed Control System for Edge Computing

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the strengths provided by edge computing, AI, and blockchain and distributed system such as IoT [1]. Blockchain provides a robust, secure.

A Blockchain-based Edge Computing Architecture for the Internet of Things

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Exploring the intellectual cores of the blockchain–Internet of Things (BIoT)

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