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- Opinion: Why George P. Bush Swallowed Bitter Pill and Endorsed Trump
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Opinion: Why George P. Bush Swallowed Bitter Pill and Endorsed Trump
Problem Statement: How might we enable the broader use of boats and seaplanes in Colorado lakes by preventing their transfer of lacustrine invasive species? Hello team, congratulations for making it to the final competition! I would like to know more about the following:. All this was validated using a free body diagram of a fin much larger than it actually needs to be, which enabled us to have a large margin of safety.
Regarding the fourth section of your question, the boat solution of our design is easily adapted to sailboat use. The slower and more irregular speeds of a sailboat will pose no obstacle to the effective use of the repellent dispensing system because the repellent naturally disperses in water for the same reason food coloring does when dropped in milk: it is thermodynamically favorable for it to do so.
Forward motion of a speedboat means that this dispersion has to occur faster than the boat moves forward, but mussels can only latch on at speeds up to 3 knots. Dispersion occurs faster than 3 knots so the danger zone where mussels can latch on is covered by repellent dispersion.
The repellent spreads out in a roughly hemispherical pattern so changes in course of the boat will not lead to gaps in coverage. You are correct, the dock disk disperses a chemical solution to repel zebra mussels. The dock disk is comprised of a foam disk that holds the repellent, and what was inside of it guided the design of our foam repellent sheet, which is what goes inside the seaplane and boat housing mechanisms. The simulation was meant to understand how attachment to moving watercraft would affect the longevity of the repellent itself, which demonstrates the need for the housing.
Any thoughts on lengthening life if you were tasked to do so? The dock disk contains copper and zinc ions, but it releases zinc ions once placed in the water. In some cases, copper may be leached in amount ranging from 0. Higher concentrations of zinc can affect fish by destroying their gills or causing stress to the organisms. The lifespan refers to how long the repellent can actively dispense chemicals until it runs out.
It needs to be replaced as interaction with moving water causes more repellent to disperse. Only the repellent foam sheet would be replaced about twice a boating season; the housing devices have much longer lifespans.
Right now a porosity of 20 ppi will be used for the foam sheet. Our direct customers are all recreational boaters and seaplane pilots in the state of Colorado, or those who visit often. The incentive for the state authorities to encourage or hopefully even require the use of our solutions is the prevention of zebra and quagga mussel infestation of Colorado lakes, without the economic penalty of restricting lake use.
Ideally, recreational users would have to install the system as part of their vehicle registration process and pay for it themselves. The upside would be that they would not have to stand in line on busy days for inspections and would not also have to pay such high registration fees since the inspection infrastructure would not have to be so large.
Hi team, Congratulations on making it to the final competition! Could you please provide more information about this? Is this a tested and efficient process that is currently used? Does it work by physically blocking or chemically repelling the organism? Is it still effective once diluted in the water? Thank you! Karin McShea, In response to question 1- The current methods of dealing with invasive mussels in Colorado is almost entirely centered on preventing the spread of mussels to uninfected lakes.
The main system currently used in Colorado is a system of visual inspections by state officials before boats are permitted in public lakes.
This is effective in some regards however the rigor of these inspections varies and sometimes mussels cannot be visually identified. There is also a quarantine system in place where boats that are travelling between lakes are kept out of water for a period of time deemed sufficient to kill any mussels present. This is more effective but limits the use of boats for some people. Seaplanes are banned from use in all public lakes in Colorado and can only be used in private bodies of water, of which there are 2 in Colorado.
All methods listed so far have minimal if any impact on wildlife. Another current concept is the Dock disk mentioned in the video, this is a foam disk that releases Copper and Zinc ions into the water that react to form copper and zinc ions.
This solution does release metal ions into a body of water however not in quantities deemed dangerous by legal sources, and does not harm wildlife beyond repelling it from an area. Thank you for your time. I would compare it to trying to move into an apartment with a vent that constantly dispenses tear gas for a human. Because of political issues between the Colorado State Legislature and the Seaplane Pilots Association our two most prominent stakeholder organizations I would imagine that even if this solution were implemented widely, there would still be a period where visual inspection was required.
This would hopefully change as our solution was proven out over a wide variety of lakes and weather conditions. For seaplanes, it is impossible to conduct a visual inspection before one of them lands, so this solution would probably come after the introduction of the boat solution was proven out. Copper and zinc fines are attached to the repellent foam sheet. Zinc ions are released into the water once the sheet is submerged within the housing of course which chemically repel mussels as it discourages attachment.
This has been tested by the dock disk, as it has been proven the invasive mussels have avoided docks with these devices in use. Another alternative, antifoulant coatings, are exterior coatings for boats that chemically repel mussels as well, and some of them have used zinc and copper in the past.
Over time, the repellent will wear out due to being in the water which requires replacement. Zinc toxicity generally decreases as water hardness increases and zinc toxicity generally decreases with decreasing pH.
As an owner of a seaplane- your product intrigues me and have a few questions -could you please further explain the fin attachment that would reside on the float plane floats — have you contacted FAA for their thoughts- as any change to an airplane requires their authorization — did you have an opportunity to conduct any aerodynamic calculations on the drag which would be increased on the plane — you mention copper and zinc- both of which are highly toxic to fish and other aquatic life- could you comment on this potential risk — and curious on the attachment to the float- given the significant forces during takeoff and landing thank you and look forward to our discussion Robin.
The physical and legal issues with attaching an item to a seaplane were major concerns and obstacles with the design of this device. Our solution device for Seaplanes was based off of Cessna Skywagons sold as or converted to Seaplanes. The securing methods consists of a bar laying parallel to the length of the plane that would be secured at the front and back to the two horizontal struts that span between the pontoons of a seaplane.
The bar is then what supports a second, vertical pole to which the fin is attached. In our design the second pole rotates at its connection point to lay parallel to the bar, allowing the user to lift the fin out of the water.
It should be noted that mussels cannot adhere to craft moving at a high rate of speed and thus it is recommended to raise the fin only immediately before takeoff. With this design the fin can be installed at the mid point of the plane between the pontoons. We were not able to successfully produce a specific value for aerodynamics however the fin and bar are specifically designed to have a very small front profile when the fin is raised.
Furthermore, the position is such that any drag would not be on one side of the plane. The takeoff and landing force were the single greatest obstacle to the structural design of the device, and we addressed this by securing the bar on both ends to counteract torque and by allowing the fin to be raised so that the extreme force that would be caused by drag with the water during takeoff can be eliminated. As for legality, we were not able to directly talk to the FAA though we included the clamp securing option to provide a method of securing that would not alter the existing portion of the craft in any way.
This combined with our efforts to minimize drag and weight were all intended to make the modification have minimal in impact to the plane and thus make it likely to be approved.
You are correct that both copper and zinc are very harmful to aquatic flora and fauna, however the quantities that would be released by the device are not sufficient to noticeably harm wildlife beyond repelling it, and once dissipated in the water the concentrations are too small to be traced. The repellant is heavily related to the repellant employed by the Dock Disk both in composition and in rate of dispersal, and the Dock Disk is already a product that is legal and in use.
Thus we have concluded that the environmental impact of the device is negligible. You mention a copper and zinc solution, how does it drive away the invasive species? What concentration level will you use? Are there any negative environmental impacts to putting copper and zinc into the water, especially if multiple craft are using this system on a single body of water?
Adam Duran In response to question 1 The problem of zebra and quagga muscles is wide in scope and impact. Both species originate from Europe and Asia and have been transferred via contaminated water vessels all over the world. Currently Thousands of lakes in the United States, especially around the Great lakes and Mississippi river.
Once in a body of water they are extremely difficult to eradicate as they reproduce exponentially within weeks and are undetectable until they are well established. Once in a body of water they will quickly coat any hard surface with mussels which causes extensive damage to boats, watercraft, and structures in water, as well as damaging and clogging pipelines, dams and water treatment facilities.
Furthermore, mussels are filter feeders and they reproduce so fast that a population quickly saps all nutrients out of a body of water, killing most other wildlife in the lake and making the lake particularly susceptible to algae blooms, which can turn the lake toxic.
In multiple documented cases mussel infestations have led to algae blooms in reservoirs that led to drinking water in the area supplied by the reservoir to be dangerous to humans. Colorado currently only has a few locations with documented infestations which is why it is extremely important that contamination between lakes be prevented.
In response to your fifth question, users know that they need to refill the system based on the 60 operating hour limit. They can also open the fin and check to see if the foam is still greenish-grey in color. That color is caused by the presence of copper and zinc ions mixed together and slathered throughout the foam matrix.
If the color is not apparent to the human eye then it definitely needs to be refilled. If the 60 hour limit is exceeded, that is a problem because reduced ion concentration will allow for potential mussel contact and thus system failure. If the vehicle is left in the water stationary then this time will be increased because flowing water will not carry away the ions in solution as quickly, but the exact amount of extra time thus gained needs to be quantified with further testing.
We thus recommend that the 60 hour limit be treated with the same level of care as an engine part that has a critical limit where it must be replaced.
In response to your fourth question: yes, the installation and maintenance of the dispenser parts will be DIY. The foam on the interior just needs to be removed after 60 hours of active water immersion, thrown away, and then replaced with more foam that has been soaked in our repellent solution. All of these tasks do not require any specialist tools or labor.
Thanks for asking! In response to your sixth question, invasive species are being dealt with in a variety of different ways. Most common of these measures is to require a thorough physical inspection of any watercraft entering a body of water where recreation is permitted.
This is usually done by relevant state authorities although there are federal and local recreation areas as well, it gets complicated and boats that pass inspection are allowed to be launched. Those boats that fail the inspection are either quarantined sent home and allowed to completely dry out for a couple weeks and then allowed to go for inspection again.
Alternatively, authorities will decontaminate boats using jets of hot water that kill and flush out invasive species. The major difference is that our designs allow for the dispenser to work while moving through the water as well as at rest, all without compromising vehicle performance.
Furthermore, our solution contains different ratios of copper and zinc to make for a more effective repellent. Also, copper-based paints have been in use with various formulation from many companies for over a century.
Also, they are expensive and need to be applied to a very clean and well prepared surface for maximum effect, which is not easy when painting metal that has corrosion pits or dents like the hull of a boat. Finally, copper plating on the bottoms of wooden vessels has been in use since the Napoleonic wars, but it corrodes like crazy and is even more expensive than paint, as well as being easy to damage and fall off.
In response to your third question, the solution works by dispersing zinc ions into the water once submerged.
Coinranking: Rates List Today – CryptoCurrencies, Smart Contracts and Blockchain
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HMAS Sydney (II) and the HSK Kormoran survey expedition 4 May 2015
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Crime Lines 02/16/2021 – 02/22/2021
To content To menu To search. Chat soon! It's simple, yet effective. A lot of times it's challenging to get that "perfect balance" between usability and visual appearance. I must say you have done a awesome job with this.
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