Permacoin repurposing bitcoin work for data preservation policy
Historical methods of data insertion are described, along with lesser-known techniques that are optimized for efficiency. Insertion methods are compared on the basis of efficiency, cost, convenience of data reconstruction, permanence, and potentially negative impact on the Bitcoin ecosystem. Antonopoulos, A. Mastering Bitcoin: Unlocking Digital Cryptocurrencies. Bartoletti, M. Bitcoin Core Development Team.
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Permacoin repurposing bitcoin work for data preservation policy
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How do we live forever? Cultural memory is something which binds individuals together across time and space, creating the sense that although mortal, there is a greater continuity persisting both in the pre-life and after-life. We are born into an existing culture, which orients and defines us as human beings, and likewise the death of an individual is a trauma which can be mitigated by the fact that there is a greater body which will outlast them.
Yet, the trauma of larger civilizational catastrophes can overwhelm this process and entire traditions can be lost to history in sudden events. Pre History is full of such moments, when the trauma of lost culture is retrospectively felt with a yearning for the knowledge of what is now missing. Large environmental catastrophes provide this type of break, whilst producing a lasting cultural echo of the event.
We find this commonality across many cultures in flood stories, dating to prehistory. The persistence of these flood tales serves as an example to illustrate how the organization of cultural transmission can be reconsidered in contemporary contexts, and how we might take things even further to survive the Anthropocene flood itself.
As this issue takes on the theme of Intangible Cultural Heritage, this discussion moves towards suggesting how blockchain might offer new chances to redesign our systems of cultural re production, helping to defend and propagate the multiplicity of media, forms and practices of culture, to bolster them against political, social and environmental threats.
More established and well-known uses of blockchain are in cryptocurrency, but these are really the beginning of a larger transformation. Rather than necessarily opposing different forms, this view suggests that blockchain systems have the potential to represent a synthesis between advantages present in the network architecture of oral cultures, and the technical capabilities of the written archive. Perhaps inexplicable at the time within the confines of known phenomena, flood stories are interwoven with mythology and religion to explain an event which would have utterly destroyed past societies, as only a vengeful deity might have the power and inclination to inflict such suffering.
Contemporary views suggest that these stories might corroborate a sea level rise associated with Holocene warming lasting until around years ago, when low lying areas such as Doggerland in the North Sea, the Sahul shelf linking Australia and Papua New Guinea 2 , and the basin of the Persian Gulf 3 were inundated.
Such devastating events bear huge significance in the collective memory, as perhaps unprecedented moments of destruction would precipitate an existential crisis: asking which immoralities prompted such a vengeful act.
In front over hill and plain Shullat and Hanish, heralds of the storm, led on. Then the gods of the abyss rose up; Nergal pulled out the dams of the nether waters, Ninurta the war-lord threw down the dykes, and the seven judges of hell, the Annunaki, raised their torches, lighting the land with their livid flame.
The eponymous King of Uruk contends trials and adventures on a quest for immortality, forming an archetype of adventure that would not be out of place in a Hollywood film. The tragic realization that this is doomed slowly dawns on Gilgamesh, after meeting Utnapishtim, an immortal survivor of the great flood, who presents Gilgamesh with an impossible challenge to stay awake.
Gilgamesh continues to seek out esoteric methods of achieving this, going as far as diving to the bottom of the sea to retrieve a life-giving plant, only to have it stolen by a serpent. In despair, Gilgamesh returns to the burgeoning Mesopotamian metropolis of Uruk, where he is awed by the advancement of technological progress. By being passed down through generations in cultural memory, the hero lives on.
In some senses, history has vindicated this lesson. The fact this discussion mentions him is testament, but even so, somewhat reliant on forms of historical contingency. The tablets were rediscovered in , prior to which the tale had been forgotten. We can credit the fact that the story still lives to their recording in this format. Although there was an intervening period of perhaps a millennium between the estimated reign of Gilgamesh and the creation of the earliest tablets, the oral transmission system had failed to persist into the modern era.
There are many reasons for this, not least due to geographic contingencies of the Middle East, at the crossroads of empire, invasion and displacement, creating many civilizational upheavals in the time since. With the eradication of the very cultures to propagate stories, their saving grace lay in this written form of memory. Bernard Stiegler discusses mnemotechnics or tertiary memory, in his work Technics and Time 1: The Fault of Epimetheus. Stiegler, drawing from phenomenologist Edmund Husserl, splits memory into three paradigms: primary retention the contemporaneous experience of the event , secondary memory the neurological recollection and tertiary memory exteriorized memory.
These can range between cuneiform jottings on clay tablets to cloud-based databases, and are qualitatively distinct from psychic memory types, in part because they are physically discrete from the human. This discussion concentrates on the ways in which tertiary memory functions, and as such, we can draw three main groupings: oral cultures — rhizomatic, verbal tertiary memory ; written archives like the Gilgamesh tablets — arborescent, technical tertiary memory ; and blockchain archives — rhizomatic, technical tertiary memory.
Under the right conditions, the design of oral transmission systems can prove extremely durable. Aboriginal folklore originally recorded in by colonists had been more recently cross-examined to reveal an important consistency thousands of miles around the circumference of Australia. They all specifically reference a flood story, which although embellished with mythology, pointed to the same event.
Paleoclimatic evidence suggests that the sea level rose to form present coastlines until around years ago, where formerly lay Sahul, a supercontinent comprising Australia and Papua New Guinea. The importance of oral traditions in these societies cannot be understated, as they help disseminate knowledge about the land, among nomadic peoples who must map their extant territory in cultural memory.
Therefore, the architecture of their oral pedagogy shows a tri-generational verification process as stories are passed down and checked between grandparents, parents and children, as well as cousins and more distant relatives, ensuring a scrupulous process of replication fidelity.
However, now that the Aboriginal peoples and their life-patterns are undergoing a significant disruption, this persistence cannot be taken for granted any longer.
Oral storytelling networks are organized in a way which could be considered rhizomatic. As no point on this network enjoys a privileged position, relations are comparatively egalitarian and as the information is distributed throughout, it is harder to forcibly destroy.
The points of vulnerability are therefore distributed, and the cultural information can only be exogenously destroyed by attacking the underlying cultural system itself.
The arborescent structure which Deleuze and Guattari discuss could likewise be compared to the transmission of cultural information from written sources. As clay tablets, books, and databases become a repository for information, these sources are privileged nodes in the arborescent network hierarchy. Like the trunk of their namesake tree, the severing of a single main connection would consequently cause the whole network to perish. And so, we find events of cultural destruction become more feasible, following increasing commitment to centralized tertiary memory.
The fire which gutted the Indigenous Brazilian ethnography collection of the Museu Nacional in Rio de Janeiro 9 is testament to how irreplaceable artefacts and archives can literally go up in flames.
Among these were audio recordings of indigenous languages with no surviving speakers 10 — meaning these oral cultures have been lost forever after being committed to a concentrated physical archive. In this particular case, both the oral rhizomatic tertiary memory and physical archive arborescent tertiary memory forms proved inadequate to survive threats. Equally speaking, there is no reason why online storage of information is necessarily immune to the same fate, as even cloud-based archives built on the rhizomatic architecture of internet servers might suffer a choke point where a single user has password access.
This is why the simple act of cloud backup is insufficient: provided a person, institution or state has the only key, this choke point persists. The recent loss of 50 million songs, tantamount to an entire generational archive of subculture, was recently snuffed out with the Myspace server migration. Blockchain provides some opportunities to mitigate the risks associated with destruction and removal of cultural information, by expanding the scale of the network to the planetary.
In doing so, the synthesis between rhizomatic, distributed network architectures and a reproducible low-cost, storage-rich technological archive is formed. This effectively utilizes the strengths of both paradigms, opening the potential for engagement to anyone with an internet connection.
We can therefore posit it as beneficial in the short-term, as a more egalitarian and engaging mode of transmission, and in the long-term as durable in the face of local and global threats. The archival urge, it would seem, has never been stronger.
Pointing to successful implementations of blockchain in the field of Intangible Cultural Heritage is difficult, with the speculative convergence of fields largely unrealized so far. With this caveat in mind, there are some examples of projects in peripheral fields which demonstrate aspects of the proposed system. KAPU, for instance, is a project which aims to create the first archaeological blockchain.
One particular facet of this is the use of OpenTimestamps — a method of data-creation proof which records on the blockchain when information was created. These timestamps reduce reliance on a third-party for verification, so would be useful in our context when political manipulation is anticipated.
Making this blockchain system one in which data can only be written rather than deleted might be key to its long-term success. This is similar to a Google Docs file, which can be edited but still retains each past version of the data.
If a rogue user tries to vandalize or attack the archive, then restoration of past versions is simple. Mostly unrealized but theoretically mapped, strategies such as Permacoin have been put forward as ways to turn the energy wastage of Bitcoin mining into a data-storage system.
Considerations about Proof-of-Work, computationally intensive systems versus alternatives like Proof-of-Stake are not only algorithmic but become environmental considerations too.
This could make the actual storage of data across a large network more feasible, as blockchain systems are sometimes resource-intensive and clunky. The top hierarchy, in this case a core blockchain, would only have to store a relatively small amount of data to realistically ensure integrity of the wider archive.
The information itself could be globally distributed across the core network, but the ability to append limited to peripheral ecosystems. This might also allow for a localized blockchain, with editing rights bound to a geographically specific area, their boundaries based on cultural communities.
There are many unresolved questions in this discussion, which prompt the affirmation that despite the hype-cycle, blockchain will never be a panacea in any sense. Within a generation, belief for the emancipatory power of the Web has cooled as its more dystopian effects have become more apparent. So, another paradigm of transformative technological advancement should be treated with a degree of wariness, and the right questions must be asked early on, to finesse its potential for human emancipation.
As Yuk Hui argues, contra techno-determinists like Marshall McLuhan, the realization of technological futures as multivalent rather than unilinear fits into what he calls a system of cosmotechnics; a rejection of technology as a singular becoming, and instead as a contingent interplay between the moral, cosmological and technical. UNESCO already archives languages, culinary practices, dance, ritual in specific manners, but if the process of archiving is decentralized, then the means of archiving these and the conceptual boundaries of Intangible Cultural Heritage will be pushed to their limits.
Counter-archiving through the internet is not unprecedented in said communities: for instance, Amazonian tribespeople have taken to using Google Earth user photography to publically highlight instances of illegal logging.
And finally, we must ask how we future-proof the archive. In a time of rapid technological advancement, it is easy to imagine a system which will function and look dated in a matter of years — designing with changing file formats and computational abilities in mind is extremely speculative work but needs to be considered.
Central to this discussion has been the idea that historical oppression and conquest have destroyed cultures in the past, so an inference could be made that discretization of people and their culture would help to soften the injustice of these acts. If cultural transmission becomes independent of its creators, then the intention is not to imply this is a favorable outcome.
Indeed, the first priority should still be to resist destruction of cultures by opposing systems of neocolonialism, environmental destruction, and dispossession.
It is far more valuable to preserve the people and their lifestyles than just a digital record of these, but in the Anthropocene we should not take any chances. We should actively distinguish between the living and dead archive: the living archive is one where culture continues to flourish and be produced, whilst the dead archive exists much like the Gilgamesh story, now cemented in content as a product of a bygone era.
Their culture is one which is heavily linked to locality, and includes folk-knowledge of the forests, like medicinal botany as well as dance, burial rites and prayer. Answering these daunting questions is worth the challenge. As the slow realization sets in that we are not simply living in a post-diluvian, but rather an inter-diluvian phase, the need to safeguard our culture against the coming environmental catastrophe becomes all the more pertinent — as the Anthropocene might produce the kind of break that has mercilessly destroyed cultures in the pre historic record.
Later in Technics and Time 1 , Stiegler cites Wittfogel in highlighting the coincidental emergence of writing systems in places where organized bureaucracies needed to enact flood-control projects. Its fate now bound to the resilience of the internet as a substrate, it might soon be easier to imagine the end of the world than the end of blockchain.
Even with civilizational disaster, we might reasonably expect survivors to continue their thirst for content, social media, and surfing whatever still exists of the web. Perhaps, by maintaining a global blockchain archive, we might achieve immortality in the same manner as Gilgamesh if our descendants can download, learn and recount our tales on the mountaintops of Svalbard.
He was wise, he saw mysteries and knew secret things, he brought us a tale of the days before the flood. He went a long journey, was weary, worn out with labor, and returning engraved on a stone the whole story. This piece appears in Volume Intangible Cultural Heritage. Volume Self-Building City. Volume How to Build a Nation. Volume Architecture of Peace Reloaded. Volume Urban Border. Volume The Shape of Law.
Blockchain Papers Curated List on GitHub
A blockchain is essentially a distributed database of records or public ledger of all transactions or digital events that have been executed and shared among participating parties. View PDF Bitcoin A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Both have been benefitting immensely by this association. The blockchain paradigm when coupled with cryptographically-secured transactions has demonstrated its utility through a number of projects, not least Bitcoin. Since the introduction of Bitcoin[Nak09] in , and the multiple computer science and electronic cash innovations it brought, there has been great interest in the potential of decentralised cryptocurrencies. While several consensus algorithms exist for the Byzantine Generals Problem, specifically as it pertains to distributed payment systems, many suffer from high latency induced by the requirement that all nodes within the network communicate synchronously. Bitcoin is widely regarded as the first broadly successful ecash system.
Blockchain-Enabled Cloud Data Preservation Services
You can find bibliometrics on most of them in Google Scholar. Babel, P. Daian, M. Kelkar, and A. In submission.
Permacoin: Repurposing Bitcoin Work for Data Permacoin: Repurposing Bitcoin Work for Data...
In Eurocrypt , Optimal Sorting Circuits for Short Keys. Wei-Kai Lin and Elaine Shi randomized author order. Differentially Private Densest Subgraph. Selected for oral presentation 44 out of submissions.
Coin.AI: A Proof-of-Useful-Work Scheme for Blockchain-Based Distributed Deep Learning
Unsatisfied with the original Bitcoin premise, Vitalik Buterin set the bar higher on what cryptography can do to computer science and decentralized applications, and he painted a compelling vision in this seminal paper. This paper was authored by nine notable authors and proposes a solution that enables bitcoins and other ledger assets to be transferred between multiple blockchains. Ripple Ripple Labs Ripple is a payment protocol that supports both fiat and cryptocurrency, and allows transactions to be settled without the need for a centralized clearing house. They focus on providing the infrastructure for cross-border payments. MultiChain Private Blockchain This whitepaper written by Dr Gideon Greenspan was among the first to realize the potential of private permissioned blockchain for use in financial institutions. It includes its own computing client and online wallets. Tendermint Jae Kwon Tendermint is a decentralized consensus engine that runs on its own blockchain.
Permacoin: Repurposing Bitcoin Work for Data Preservation
Karame, E. Androulaki, M. Roeschlin, A.
A Survey on Crypto Currency-Revolutionary Monetary SystemRELATED VIDEO: I Lost $10 MILLION In Crypto!!! My Life is Ruined!!! (Pivotal Market Lesson)
Click on any paper title to view its abstract. Registration and Reception. Opening Remarks. Session: Attacks 1. Compromised websites that redirect web traffic to malicious hosts play a critical role in organized web crimes, serving as doorways to all kinds of malicious web activities e.
Cryptocurrencies and Bitcoin : Charting the Research Landscape Full Paper
Skip to search form Skip to main content Skip to account menu You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Blockchains are distributed ledgers that enable parties who do not trust each other to maintain states. The parties agree on the existence, values, and histories of the states.
Springer Professional. Back to the search result list. Table of Contents.