Serum crypto antigen
Latex agglutination test for the detection of Cryptococcus neoformans antigen in serum or CSF. Life discovered. Life diagnosed. Gastrointestinal Gastrointestinal Calprotectin H.
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Cryptococcal Antigen, Latex Screen with Reflex to Titer
In recent years, deadly infectious diseases, including Ebola and COVID, have emerged to cause widespread human devastation. Although researchers have developed a range of sophisticated methods to detect such infections, existing diagnostics face many limitations. The technique, known as Nano2RED, is a clever twist on conventional high-accuracy tests relying on complex testing protocols and expensive readout systems.
The technology represents a significant advance in the fight against infectious diseases. It can be developed and produced at very low cost, deployed within weeks or days after an outbreak, and made available for around 1 cent per test. It does not require surface incubation or washing, dye labeling, or amplification, yet still provides about 10 times better sensitivity than ELISA.
In addition, the use of semiconductor devices supports a highly portable digital readout system, which can be developed and produced at a cost as low as a few dollars, making it ideal not only for lab use but for clinics, home use, and remote or resource-strained locations. This approach is based on modular designs, and could potentially be used to test for any pathogen.
The research appears in the current issue of the journal Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Epidemiologists have long known the basic formula when confronting a disease outbreak. To identify cases and stop the contagion, it is necessary to develop an accurate test or assay that can identify the disease, then test early and often, to assess the rate of spread and attempt to isolate the infected. Unfortunately, by the time a new diagnostic has been developed, manufactured, and distributed, the disease outbreak is often already widespread and challenging to contain.
Further, accurate tests, including PCR which can amplify tiny levels of pathogenic nucleic acids to measurable levels , are often expensive, labor-intensive and require sophisticated laboratory facilities.
The Ebola epidemic of , though largely confined to West Africa, spread with terrifying speed, causing panic and killing more than 11, people. The crisis was exacerbated by a combination of inadequate surveillance systems and poor public health infrastructure.
In both disease outbreaks, diagnostic testing arrived late on the scene. Further, costly and cumbersome testing requirements have meant that far too few tests have been administered, even after their successful development. The new study applies its innovative method to test for these two prominent diseases as a proof of concept. A common feature in many disease outbreaks is the lightning speed with which a pathogen, having first infected a handful of people, can gather momentum, fan out in all directions and quickly overwhelm hospitals and healthcare providers.
During a pandemic like COVID, the sensitivity of a given diagnostic test is secondary to how often the test is given and how long it takes for results to be processed. A highly sensitive test is of limited use if it can only be given once, and results require a weeks-long turnaround.
Research has shown that infection outbreaks are best controlled when testing is repeated in less than 3-day intervals and at a large scale. Adequately preparing society for current and future outbreaks of infectious disease will require faster, cheaper, more accurate and more easily usable diagnostics. The technology is highly accurate, rivaling ELISA, a long-recognized gold standard technology for diagnostic testing.
The basic idea of such diagnostics, known as immunoassays, is simple: A sample of blood or other biological fluid is applied to the assay, which is adorned with antibodies. When antibodies recognize the presence of a corresponding disease antigen in the sample, they bind with it, producing a positive test result. Nano2RED also relies on binding affinity for positive diagnosis but instead uses floating gold nanoparticles for readout. Unlike ELISA, Nano2RED can be developed from scratch in roughly 10 days and theoretically applicable for any pathogen, providing vitally important early surveillance in the case of a disease outbreak.
It can deliver test results in minutes and may be administered at an estimated cost of a penny per test. In this method, the first step is to produce a very large library containing over a billion random amino acid sequences, known as nanobodies, which can act as synthetic antibodies, able to bind with target disease antigens. This vast library of nanobodies is then successively screened against the antigen in question, for example, sGP in the case of Ebola.
Only those nanobodies that show strong binding affinity for the antigen are used for sensing. Next, the selected nanobodies are affixed to gold nanoparticles that will act as probes to identify and bind with antigens present in a blood sample. In the study, a pair of two high affinity nanobodies were selected and attached to gold nanoparticles.
This approach improves both the sensitivity and specificity of the test. The key innovation of Nano2RED is the way the antigen detection is registered. As disease antigens in the sample are recognized by the nanobodies, they bind together, forming clusters of bound nanobody and antigen, like islands of algae floating on the sea surface. The gold nanoparticles provide a stable platform to hold the nanobodies in place. Once enough binding has taken place, the bound clusters begin to sink to the bottom of the vessel.
This can be detected with the naked eye in the form of a color change. The solution becomes lighter in color as the gold-nanoparticle-carried antigen-antibody clusters precipitate out, signaling detection of the pathogen. While full precipitation of nanoparticle clusters leading to a test result can normally take several hours, the process can be sped up by centrifuging the sample, which eliminates the wait time for precipitation. In this case, just minutes are sufficient for a result. Gold nanoparticles also work to display color, not yellow but red, by absorbing light from a narrow spectral range.
This absorbance feature allowed the Wang lab to invent a tiny, inexpensive device that converts this color change into an electrical signal, using color-matching semiconductor LEDs and photodetectors.
Such instruments produce a rapid and accurate readout of assay results, whose limits of detection are comparable to or better than costly lab-based spectroscopy methods. The test also delivers quantitative results based on amount of antigen detected. This could be vitally useful for estimating disease severity as well as time elapsed since the infection event.
In the future, the test results can be digitized by circuits and conveniently transmitted via internet to anywhere in the world for data analysis and further scrutiny, which could be important to government policy decision-making processes and timely interruption of the transmission. Nano2RED requires only a tiny blood sample, typically around 20 microliters.
Unlike conventional methods, Nano2RED is also very simple to use with minimal training involved for healthcare personnel. It does not require any time-consuming and expensive incubation, washing, fluorescent labeling or amplification.
And that is what we will continue to work on. Development of home COVID test comparable to PCR accuracy, selectivity More information: Xiahui Chen et al, Synthetic nanobody-functionalized nanoparticles for accelerated development of rapid, accessible detection of viral antigens, Biosensors and Bioelectronics DOI: This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission.
The content is provided for information purposes only. The graphic highlights the key features of Nano2RED, an innovative diagnostic method invented by professor Wang and his colleagues.
The top section illustrates the rapid timeline of steps for production of the test, which can all be carried out in roughly 20 days. The middle section of the graphic shows the basic steps involved. First, a large library of synthetic antibodies or nanobodies is produced and screened against a known antigen left , next, nanobodies are attached to gold nanoparticles middle and finally, disease antigens are detected in a sample when gold nanoparticle-bound nanobodies fuse with them, producing a positive test result, right.
Credit: Wang lab. More information: Xiahui Chen et al, Synthetic nanobody-functionalized nanoparticles for accelerated development of rapid, accessible detection of viral antigens, Biosensors and Bioelectronics Provided by Arizona State University.
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Remel™ Cryptococcus Antigen Test Kit, Latex
Click Here to See Trade Ideas! Risk-free with a 14 day refund guarantee. The MHRA decision was based on the totality of preclinical, clinical, and chemistry, manufacturing and controls CMC data reviewed by the agency. In both trials, the vaccine demonstrated efficacy with a reassuring safety profile. Serious and severe adverse events were low in number and balanced between vaccine and placebo groups.
Simple, inexpensive, fast and accurate nanosensors pinpoint infectious diseases
Most HIV-associated cryptococcal infections are caused by Cryptococcus neoformans , but occasionally Cryptococcus gattii is the cause. The incidence of the disease has declined substantially among people treated with ART. In people with HIV, cryptococcosis commonly presents as a subacute meningitis or meningoencephalitis with fever, malaise, and headache slowly developing over many weeks, with a median onset of 2 weeks after infection. Some patients experience encephalopathic symptoms—such as lethargy, altered mentation, personality changes, and memory loss—that are usually a result of increased intracranial pressure ICP. Among people presenting with cryptococcal meningitis shortly after initiating ART, the symptom onset can be more acute, likely related to unmasking immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome IRIS. Cryptococcosis usually is disseminated when diagnosed in a patient with HIV. In spite of widespread disseminated disease, patients with HIV may manifest few symptoms suggesting a disseminated infection. Any organ can be involved, and skin lesions may show different manifestations, including umbilicated skin lesions that mimic those seen with molluscum contagiosum. Isolated pulmonary infection is also possible; symptoms and signs include cough and dyspnea in association with an abnormal chest radiograph, which typically demonstrates lobar consolidation, although nodular infiltrates have been reported. Pulmonary cryptococcosis may present as acute respiratory distress syndrome and even mimic Pneumocystis pneumonia.
By Marin Wolf. Update: This story has been updated to include the confirmation of BA. Researchers confirmed two cases of BA. Scientists discovered the sub-lineage in December, shortly after the original omicron lineage, called BA.
Cryptococcal Antigen Testing in Newly Diagnosed HIV-Positive Patients
In recent years, deadly infectious diseases, including Ebola and COVID, have emerged to cause widespread human devastation. Although researchers have developed a range of sophisticated methods to detect such infections, existing diagnostics face many limitations. The technique, known as Nano2RED, is a clever twist on conventional high-accuracy tests relying on complex testing protocols and expensive readout systems. The technology represents a significant advance in the fight against infectious diseases. It can be developed and produced at very low cost, deployed within weeks or days after an outbreak, and made available for around 1 cent per test.
CRYPTOCOCCUS ANTIGEN, SERUM
Serum Cryptococcal antigen CrAg positivity is predictive of future occurrence of CM and pre-emptive treatment reduces its mortality. Methods: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care, public health facility in New Delhi, India. The mean BMI was Mean CD4 counts of the subjects was Early and prompt diagnosis of CM and timely initiation of treatment are paramount in reducing the CM related mortality. CM presents as a sub acute to chronic meningitis and the diagnosis is often delayed in resource limited settings. To complicate matters, the clinical features of CM closely resemble tubercular meningitis, which is also endemic in these regions. Hence it is important to screen for CM with a sensitive, specific, easily accessible and inexpensive test that will identify CM early.
Early detection and treatment of infection are key to reducing the mortality associated with this disease. Clinical Relevancy. Clin and Vacc Immuno. J Clin Microbiol.
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Pulmonary infection is acquired by inhalation of the organism and is usually subclinical in the immunocompetent host. Dissemination may occur in an immunocompromised patient, often to the meninges. Latex Agglutination LA. Not detected. Centrifuge serum specimens within 1 hour of collection. Transfer serum to clean transport tube.
Life discovered. Life diagnosed. Gastrointestinal Gastrointestinal H.