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Een verzameling van wetenschappelijke en net wat minder wetenschappelijke artikelen uit mijn universitaire jaren. Artikelen waarvan ik tweede of meer-dan-tweede auteur was, heb ik weggelaten. De resterende zes in het Nederlands. Gareth Nelson used the principle of falsifiability to justify his preference for phylogeny reconstruction based on the biogenetic law.



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Een verzameling van wetenschappelijke en net wat minder wetenschappelijke artikelen uit mijn universitaire jaren. Artikelen waarvan ik tweede of meer-dan-tweede auteur was, heb ik weggelaten. De resterende zes in het Nederlands. Gareth Nelson used the principle of falsifiability to justify his preference for phylogeny reconstruction based on the biogenetic law. We agree with Nelson that ideas in the philosophy of science are worth exploring but the worth of his exploration is beyond our comprehension.

He reformulates the biogenetic law and claims that his version is falsifiable because it would lead to contradictions in certain hypothetical cases.

Our comments are elaborated through an analysis of this section. Nelson aims at the development of a good direct technique for establishing character phylogenies and demands that this technique be based on a falsifiable hypothesis. He regards the biogenetic law and paleontology as obvious candidates. The biogenetic law would not suffer from this defect if it is restated as follows:. Given an ontogenetic character transformation from a character observed to be more general to a character observed to be less general, the more general character is primitive and the less general advanced.

To demonstrate its falsifiability Nelson proceeds by hypothesizing two species A and B : A with character x throughout ontogeny and B with character x changing into y during ontogeny x is thus more general than y. Two other species, C and D , are hypothesized as a potential source of falsification, C with character y ' throughout ontogeny and D with an ontogenetic character transformation from y ' to x ' y ' is more general than x '.

According to Nelson such data would falsify the law, since a good law should not lead from coherent evidence to contradictory conclusions. Nelson did not unearth any such falsifiers from the literature. He therefore concludes that his version of the biogenetic law is an empirically valid basis for the reconstruction of character phylogenies. Under this interpretation the example would not result in falsification, through contradiction, of the biogenetic law.

A contradiction could arise only if, e. The concept of generality poses more serious problems. The following interpretations are feasible. The above interpretation actually excludes the construction of any example leading to falsification in terms of ontogeny.

Suppose we have evidence concerning x and y for a group of species, showing that x is more general than y in the group as a whole. Any ontogenetic transformation from x to y within the group leads to the conclusion that x is more primitive than y. But transitions from y to x do not entail the opposite conclusion since y is not more general than x.

So contradictions cannot arise. The concept is used in the relative sense, but not for the evidence as a whole. The following example shows that even the second interpretation has awkward consequences.

Suppose two additional species E and F have both xx. Consider two situations:. Situation I. Observations: x is more general than y ; ontogenetic character transformation from x to y. Conclusion: x is more primitive than y follows from the biogenetic law. C and D are studied afterwards. Observations: y is more general than x ; ontogenetic character transformation from y to x. Conclusion: y is more primitive than x. The two conclusions are contradictory.

Therefore, the biogenetic law is regarded as falsified. Situation II. Conclusion: x is more primitive than y. D and E are studied afterwards. Observations: y is more primitive than x ; ontogenetic character transformation from y to x.

Conclusion: no inference concerning primitivity is possible. The biogenetic law is not regarded as falsified. The examples shows that this interpretation of generality permits contradictory conclusions about falsification, depending on how the evidence is partitioned. We have considered two moves to solve the above problem.

Firstly, some criterion might be found to partition evidence in a non-arbitrary way. But this falsification is not decisive: the study of an additional species G with xx may lead upon application of the criterion to the partitioning ABEF-CDG , with obvious consequences rejection of original falsification.

Furthermore, the formulation of a criterion does not seem easy. Secondly, the following stronger version of the biogenetic law could be proposed. But the remedy would fail to meet a second objection, to which we now turn. Even then, attempts to establish the validity of the biogenetic law through evidence from ontogeny alone are inadequate. By way of example, consider the following hypothesis.

The set of conceivable data concerning ontogeny that should falsify this hypothesis coincides exactly with the set that falsifies the biogenetic law. Let it be granted that falsifications are possible, and that the biogenetic law has survived many severe tests relating to ontogeny.

This would not even warrant the provisional acceptance of the biogenetic law, because our hypothesis will have gained the same measure of acceptability. Nelson could object that our hypothesis is highly implausible, and he would be right. Perhaps he could expand his methodology, say, with the principle of parsimony. The principle of parsimony is normally used as follows.

Suppose we investigate a variable x as a function of y. The standard procedure is to establish paired values for x and y. A given set of values will still be compatible with many functions.

The principle of parsimony permits the adoption of the function with the simplest mathematical form. In the absence of any data for one of the variables, say y , application of the principle could lead to absurd consequences.

We think that our hypothesis is actually implausible in the light of factual evidence that is taken for granted because it belongs to generally accepted background knowledge. This makes it easy to overlook the force of our objection. An additional example outside current paradigms may therefore be illuminating. Consider the following admittedly bizarre hypothesis.

This is obviously not acceptable not in the least before a court of law. Some data directly or indirectly bearing on presidents, outside the domain of ontogeny, will be needed. In the same way, data concerning phylogeny are needed in tests of the biogenetic law cf. To be true, observations on phylogeny are often problematic, as Nelson shows in discussing paleontology. But this obviates testing only if a strict principle of falsification is accepted. Fortunately, philosophers of science including Popper have generally dismissed strict falsificationism.

If Nelson would be willing to relax his view on falsification, his comments on paleontology would need reconsideration. Admittedly, fossils are comparatively rare. This opens the door for ad hoc stratagems e.

In some cases, however, there are good reasons for accepting paleontological data. The reliability of such data is indeed a function of independent evidence from anatomy, ecology and geology concerning, e. At the very least, he should explain his terminology.

More seriously, his test in terms of ontogeny cannot distinguish between competing hypotheses without the use of some additional methodology or background evidence not relating to ontogeny. Such evidence should be made explicit. Nelson, G. Ontogeny, phylogeny and the biogenetic law. Systematics and biogeography. Columbia Univ.

Press, New York, 56 pp. Summary: Sociobiology is characterized by debates between scientists working in different fields. Such debates could profit substantially by a methodological analysis of central concepts. As a result, biological theories about altruism tell us nothing about the intentions with which altruistic acts are performed. Sociobiology — defined with reference to animal and human behaviour in evolutionary perspective e. Wilson, — is currently a field of controversies and fierce debate.

The relative merits of biological, psychological, sociological and anthropological theories in the explanation of human and animal behaviour is one of the central points of discussion. Mild objections from other biologists and social scientists were followed soon by sweeping statements from all sides see Caplan, , part V for a historical survey. Controversies often arise when people say too much in view of the evidence they have.

Unfortunately, this does not imply that such controversies can be solved by industriously sampling facts. Along the road from scanty evidence to broad generalizations much unwarranted certainty emerges.

Anyone who went along that road will not be easily convinced by falsifying evidence an interesting problem of human psychology. Moreover, a lot of what we say cannot be refuted by facts alone a matter of methodology.

Most of our general statements are based on observations as well as presuppositions.



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Volgerslijst Jacqueline Wouters

vraagstukken met vergelijkingen met 1 onbekende doden

Makelaars treden op als tussenpersoon tussen verkopers en kopers. Zij zijn de opgeleide deskundigen binnen onroerend goed die een vitale dienst voor beide partijen. Op zoek naar huizen of onroerend goed te koop kan nu worden bereikt een aantal manieren: makelaars kunnen worden gevonden onderhandelen met verkopers van onroerend goed over de verkoop van onroerend goed namens de kopers, door het gebruik van full-service vastgoedbeleggers en hun medewerkers, of het kopen van huizen namens huizenkopers door middel van particuliere verkoop. Hun werkovereenkomsten mogen hen niet verhinderen informatie te onthullen of op te treden op een manier die de relatie tussen de vastgoedconsument en de makelaar in gevaar kan brengen, noch mag de agent iemand anders vertegenwoordigen in de transactie.

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De SS en Nederland. Documenten uit SS-archieven 1935 - KNAW

De politie heeft ten onrechte de actievoerders Quinsy Gario en Jerry Afriyie gearresteerd bij de intocht van Sinterklaas van in Dordrecht. Dat staat in een rapport van de nationale Ombudsman. Het geweld van de agenten noemt hij disproportioneel, in strijd met de mensenrechten waaronder de vrijheid van meningsuiting. Volgens de agenten verstoorden ze de openbare orde.


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De week begon met spierballentaal van de Britten en de Amerikanen. De dialoog gaat verder maar toch lijkt het erop dat het Russische leger zich ergens op het voorbereiden is. Zij zijn uitgerust met zakken met bloed en medisch materiaal. Die willen rust en hun economie op peil houden en vinden de huidige situatie niet dreigend, zeggen ze. Maar hoe belangrijk is dat voor Europa, uitgezonderd enkele Oost-Europese landen?

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    It was an accidental case